Monday, December 30, 2019
Early childhood educators are expected to know more about the brain development of the child, in order for him to read and write, but on the other hand, for the educator to communicate in a better way. The educators have to keep in mind the aspect of life where the children has to interact with the immediate environment and and sensory awareness. Moreover, the children has to learn to take responsibilities of their actions therefore, the educators role has expanded as there is a more complex and diverse society. Ã¢â¬Å"In December 2009, all Australian governments, through the Council of Australian Governments (COAG), agreed to a partnership to establish a National Quality Framework for Early Childhood Education and Care (Ã¢â¬ËNational Quality FrameworkÃ¢â¬â¢) for most long day care, preschool/ kindergarten, family day care and outside school hours care services in Australia. The National Quality Standard is a schedule to the National Regulations. The National Quality Standard sets a new national benchmark for the quality of education and care services. It also gives services and families a better understanding of a quality service. This enables families to make informed decisions about the services providing education and care to their child.Ã¢â¬ (NQF/NQS, 2013) Furthermore, the early childhood educator has the responsibility to guide the children towards the norms and values of the society and discipline. The respect of the existence of a variety of cultural or ethnic groups within t heShow MoreRelatedAustralian Government Policies, Initiatives And Legislative Requirements1075 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagespolicies, initiatives and legislative requirements and analyse how these documents influence curriculum, promote quality care and support the achievement of high quality outcomes for young children in Early Learning contexts. Introduction 200 words l Overview of the situation and identification of key issues. In 2012, the National Quality Framework (NQF) was introduced by the Australian Government and subsequently applied to majority of childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s education and care services. The framework is usedRead Morenational quality standards1389 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesÃ¯ » ¿ Task A: Research National quality standards National quality standard definition; Ã¢â¬Ëthe national quality standard is the benchmark for the quality of early childhood education and care in Australia.Ã¢â¬â¢ National Quality Standard (NQS) is the main aspect of the NQF which sets a national standard for early childhood education and care, and also outside school hours care services in Australia. It aims to promote; The safety, health and wellbeing of children A focus on achieving outcomesRead MoreDevelopment Of Exceptional And Special Needs Children Essay1672 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe early childhood sector is increasing rapidly across the Caribbean. Some of these centres just came about in an ad hoc manner due to the demand for day care services; recognising how important early childhood development is, governments and other officials are being faced with the task of ensuring that quality early childhood education is provided. This essay seeks to discuss teachersÃ¢â¬â¢ expectations, sensitivities, priorities and values that contribute to the quality of all pupils learning andRead MoreProfessional Development in Early Childhood Education Essay1320 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagestheir early childhood development are teacher professionals who have a passion and a genuine desire to help them learn, grow and succeed in their education. These are just a few roles that early childhood educators plays in the field of early childhood education for work ing with young children in their early childhood years of life, which the requirements, most of the time, are to have both a formal education and passing teacher-certification score. The National Association for Education of YoungRead MoreLifelong Learning and Education Quality1623 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesLifelong learning and education quality are the two topics prevailing in the contemporary international and national education policy documents. We tried to systematize the extensive and various literatures on the quality in education through two discourses on quality: quality assurance discourse and quality construction discourse (Table 1). Each of these discourses, with all the variations and different accents within them, is mainly shaped by the different understanding of the nature of the humanRead MoreLegal and Ethical Issues in Childcare1392 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesprotection among other things. (COAG) Families SA runs the Child Abuse Report Line on 131 478. The Report Line is the focal point where all child protection concerns are to be reported. There are three teams in operation during these times. 1) The standard Child Abuse Report Line team is made up of social workers. For the sake of integrity all mandatory notifications are reviewed on the day by senior social workers. 2) Aboriginal Family Practitioners man the Yaitya Tirramangkotti Line. 3) A specialRead MoreLife s Little Treasures Preschool1399 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesthrough our natural environments and a sociocultural philosophy of Early Childhood Education inspired by Lev Vygotsky (Berk, 2006). Our preschoolÃ¢â¬â¢s outdoor play area provides limitless opportunities for your children to learn through play, whilst acquiring respect and an appreciation for nature and their environment, working towards and achieving all five Early Years Learning Framework (EYLF) Outcomes (Australian Department of Education, Employment and Workplace, [ADEEW] , 2009) At our center we stronglyRead MoreThe North Carolina Pre K Program Requirements1471 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe North Carolina Pre-Kindergarten Program, formerly known as More at Four, is geared towards bettering the lives for At-Risk 4-year-old children. Exposing children to an early learning experience that will promote a positive learning environment to ensure Kindergarten readiness is what drives the program. Upon arrival, each child is screened using the Brigance 4-year-old tool to assess and determine the childÃ¢â¬â¢s developmental skills and abilities. According to the text, Ã¢â¬Å"Classroom tests and assessmentsRead MoreRegulatory Environment For Prior School Settings Essay1910 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesprior-to-school settings National Quality Framework (NQF) is the national framework developed by Australian Governments to provide better educational and developmental outcome for children (Education Council, 2014). The NQF sets a national quality benchmark for Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) and Outside School hour Care Services (OSCS) national wide (Education Council, 2014). It also acts as guideline for ECEC and OSCS to monitor their quality standards and practices (Education Council, 2014).Read MoreFederalism in Government Policy toward Education Essay1507 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesEducation is the key to our future and that is why it is such an important subject in the United States. Education relates to federalism by interacting with the national government, state governments, and local governments. Each level of government is responsible for improving education within their limits of power. The national government has been helping to improve and regulate education since 1965 when they passed the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA). The main purpose of this
Sunday, December 22, 2019
MALCOLM X Learning to Read Malcolm Little, born in Omaha, Nebraska, in 1925, was reborn Malcolm X in his twenties while imprisoned for burglary. (He considered Little a slave name and chose the X to signify his lost African tribal name.) His conversion to Islam under the Nation of Islam and his rigorous self-education led him to a life ofpolitical activism marked by hatred, violence, and hope. For a time, as the foremost spokesman of the Nation of Islam, Malcolm preached a separatist philosophy with racist rhetoric; on breaking with the Nation of Islam and converting to orthodox Islam after a pilgrimage to Mecca, Malcolm again changed his name (to El-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz) and philosophy, moving closer to the integrationist goalsÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦5 I was so fascinated that I went onÃ¢â¬âI copied the dictionarys ro next page. And the same experience came when I studied that. With every succeeding page, I also learned of people and places and events from history. Actually the dictionary is like a miniature encyclopedia. Finally the dictionarys A section had filled a whole tabletÃ¢â¬âand I went on into the Bs. That was the way I started copying what eventually became the entire dictionary. It went a lot faster after so much practice helped me to pick up handwriting speed. Between what I wrote in my tablet, and writing letters, during the rest of my time in prison I would guess I wrote a million words. I suppose it was inevitable that as my word-base broadened, I could for the first time pick up a book and read and now begin to understand what the book was saying. Anyone who has read a great deal can imagine the new world that opened. Let me tell you something: from then until I left that prison, in every free moment I had, i f I was not reading in the library I was reading on my bunk. You couldnt have gotten me out of books with a wedge. Between Mr. Muhammads teachings, my correspondence, my visitorsÃ¢â¬âusually Ella and ReginaldÃ¢â¬âand my reading of books, months passed without my even thinking about being imprisoned. In fact, up to then, I never had been so truly free in myShow MoreRelatedMalcom X And The Allegory Of The Cave854 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesare expanded they begin to understand and view more. The process of becoming knowledgeable through education can differ from the individual or situation. The overall experience as well can change the perception. Two passages, Ã¢â¬Å"Learning to ReadÃ¢â¬ by Malcom X and Ã¢â¬Å"The Allegory of the CaveÃ¢â¬ by Plato both contain an individual who goes through the path of gaining wisdom. Although both passages contain similarities involving one going through an experience resulting in the enlightenment of education, thereRead MoreMalcom X And Ri chard Wright1066 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesMelissa Coss Aquino English 11 Many people learn to write and read with the help of a formal education. Malcom X in Ã¢â¬Å"Learning to ReadÃ¢â¬ and Richard Wright in Ã¢â¬Å"The library CardÃ¢â¬ had none of these blessings. In spite of having great disadvantages both Malcom X and Wright became educated. Even though their journey to literacy have some significant differences, the resemblance are evident Malcom X and Richard Wright were incredibly resourceful and extremely self-motivated during their path towards literacyRead MoreA Homemade Education By Malcom X1379 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagessomething, that keeps them going when things get tough. Malcom X wanted to improve his writing, Lupe Quintanilla wanted to learn English, and I am motivated to receive a higher education. Drive, that is what all of these individuals have in common. Something in our lives lead us down the path to better our education it was a tough road but being motivated kept us going. In Malcom XÃ¢â¬â¢s short story, A Homemade Education, it talks about how Malcom was in prison and how he wanted to better his vocabularyRead MoreMalcom X And The Civil Rights Movement1105 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesAlgarni Ms. Kristi Brock ENG 101- College Writing (WC) 15 July 2015 Analysis of Ballot or Bullet On 3rd April 1964, Malcom X addressed the Negro community assembled in Cleveland over the controversial issue of the civil rights movement. Ã¢â¬Å"The Ballot or the BulletÃ¢â¬ speech of Malcom X can be considered as a direct response to Ã¢â¬Å"I have a DreamÃ¢â¬ speech of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Malcom X and Dr. Martin were taking a stand for the true freedom of the same community but with a diagonally opposite philosophiesRead MoreEssay Malcom X and Non-violence1008 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesMy life has always been one of changes (436). Malcolm X, throughout his life, was one of the most influential, and quite possibly the most effective, civil rights activists of the twentieth century. His radical ideas and views were widely sought after from the oppressed African-American population in the 1950s and 60s. The changes he underwent throughout his life affected his views of a racist America and inspired him to lead a dedicated life preaching, what he thought to be, the only methodRead MoreSimilarities Between Frederick Douglas And Malcom X1321 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesand Malcom X, two men who enlightened themselves without access to the wealth that tethers education to those of the upper class. Hard work and determination can win the day and bestow a freedom that only an advanced education offers. These two men are shining examples of what can be accomplished when someone refuses to be denied an education. This story tells about, Malcolm X and Fredrick Douglas, and how they found themselves trapped, uninformed, and rose above their demographics. Malcolm X wasRead MoreEssay on Exploring the Autobiography of Malcom X1068 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesmeans necessary. These words were spoken by Malcolm X, a civil rights leader and political activist. He is also the main character, narrator, and author of the Autobiography of Malcolm X. The autobiography takes place in various cities in the United States, such as Omaha, New York, and Detroit, as well as the Middle East, and Africa. Considering the type of literature this is, it is obvious to state that Malcolm X is the main character. Malcolm X, as a child, was intelligent and popular amongst hisRead MoreEssay Malcom X/Nation of Islam1489 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesfollowers who believed that Fard was actually god, in the form of man. Elijah Poole, later known as Elijah Muhammad, took over the Nation of Islam after FardÃ¢â¬â¢s disappearance in 1934. One Nation of Islam follower widely known for his work was Malcolm X. Malcolm X was born on May 19, 1925 under the name Malcolm Little, the fourth child of Rev. Earl and Louise Little. MalcolmÃ¢â¬â¢s father was of Baptist faith that preached on Sundays, and supported Universal Negro Improvement Association and Marcus Garvey, aRead MoreThe Autobiography of Malcom X by Alex Haley856 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pages The Autobiography of Malcolm X as told by Alex Haley is about a man who forever changed America. Malcolm X, born Malcolm Little and also known as El-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz spoke out against the effects of discrimination, racism and segregation. He went through many different stages in his life as he fought for equal treatment of colored individuals. The three stages that really changed the way Malcolm X thought were his experiences while incarcerated, his entering into the religion of Islam byRead MoreComparison of Martin Luther King, Jr and Malcom X1700 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesdo i t is with a ballot or a bullet. And if you re not ready to get involved with either one of those, you are satisfied with the status quo. That means we ll have to change you. (Malcom X) While Martin Luther King promoted non-violence, civil rights, and the end to racial segregation, a man of the name of Malcom X dreamed of a separate nation. Martin Luther King, Jr. was the conscience of his generation. A Southerner, a black man, he gazed upon the great wall of segregation and saw that the
Friday, December 13, 2019
Background: Seasonal fluctuation is an of import public wellness phenomenon. Many common human diseases display predictable seasonal tendencies depending upon direct or indirect factors act uponing patient results. Pakistan lacks clear cut informations about this issue. We will write a custom essay sample on Seasonal Variation Common Pediatric Problems Health And Social Care Essay or any similar topic only for you Order Now Seasonal fluctuation assumes critical importance when it comes to paediatric disease in our set up. Our under 5 old ages mortality is one of the highest in WHO-EMRO part. Aims A ; Aims: Present survey is aimed at observing and documenting seasonal tendencies in paediatric unwellnesss with highest morbidity and mortality rates in our state, viz. , acute stomach flu, asthma, URTI and LRTI. Material A ; Methods: Retrospective reappraisal of Pediatric OPD databases for three ( 2006-2008 ) consecutive old ages in Kuwait Teaching Hospital was carried out by the research workers and instances run intoing inclusion standards were entered in survey database. Data was analyzed for seasonal tendencies utilizing Microsoft Excel 2007. Consequences: Clear cut seasonal tendencies were seen in Acute Gastroenteritis, URTI, Asthma aggravation and LRTI. Each disease displayed one-year extremums for three back-to-back old ages. Decision: Major paediatric slayers in our state show predictable seasonal tendencies that can be used for better readiness and improved results in paediatric population Keywords: Seasonal fluctuation, Acute Gastroenteritis, Upper Respiratory Tract Infection, Lower Respiratory Tract Infection, Asthma, Pediatrics, List of Abbreviations AGE Acute Gastroenteritis EMRO East Mediterranean Regional Office IMCI Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesss KTH Kuwait Teaching Hospital LRTI Lower Respiratory Tract Infection OPD Out Patient Department PMC Peshawar Medical College RSV Respiratory Syncytial Virus URTI Upper Respiratory Tract Infection WHO World Health Organization List of Tables, Graphs and Figures Table 1: Entire figure of instances of selected diseases for each twelvemonth of survey at Kuwait Teaching Hospital Figure: Seasonal tendency of Acute Gastroenteritis ( AGE ) instances Figure: Seasonal tendency of instances with acute aggravation of asthma Figure: Seasonal tendency of instances with acute aggravation of URTI Figure: Seasonal tendency of LRTI instances Background Seasonal fluctuation is a well-known public wellness property of human unwellness. It is of import from epidemiologic position point and serves as an index of etiologies other than primary causative agent for a disease. Human immune responses, [ 1 ] , bacterial counts, [ 2, 3 ] , allergen denseness, exposure rates, [ 3, 4 ] and opportunity exposure, [ 5 ] are all seasonally determined. Bing able to foretell seasonal fluctuation in any disease is, intelligibly, an assistance in index of intuition, diagnosing and above all aaÃ¢â¬Å¡Ã ¬AÃ¢â¬Å"Emergency PreparednessaaÃ¢â¬Å¡Ã ¬A? and preventative steps to incorporate disease. Outside primary attention, seasonal fluctuation has been documented in admittance rates to intensive attention units ( United Kingdom ) , [ 6, 7 ] visits to the exigency section ( United States ) , [ 8 ] and all-cause mortality ( United Kingdom ) , [ 9 ] . Published surveies show seasonal fluctuation in the diagnosing of ischaemic bosom disease in general pattern ( United Kingdom ) , [ 10 ] and in the figure of visits to primary attention doctors ( Sweden ) . The Swedish survey, based on a 14-year observation period from 1969 to 1982, found that visits to primary attention doctors declined during July and August in relation to a diminution in diagnosings related to respiratory tract infections, and that there were no appreciable differences for the remainder of the twelvemonth. Season specific unwellnesss, [ 11, 12, 13 ] and mortality rates, [ 13, 14 ] are now being used to find several wellness parametric quantities and resource allotment in wellness sector. This makes finding of se asonal fluctuation an of import public wellness step particularly in catching diseases. Although Pakistan is endemic for several catching diseases, yet we do non hold sufficient informations to back up seasonal fluctuation for common primary attention jobs in our population. Bing a state that faces one of the highest under 5 mortality rates in the WHO-EMRO part, we carry the duty of sensing and certification of baseline informations for appropriate intercessions in paediatric unwellness. From a public wellness position, the current survey will assist us place the demand for intercession and formulate schemes on a larger graduated table to cut down under 5 yr. morbidity and mortality rates in our population. Present survey is a Pilot design to look into the seasonal fluctuation of common paediatric wellness jobs showing to a primary attention OPD in a metropolis of Pakistan. Aims: To observe and document seasonal tendencies in paediatric unwellnesss with highest morbidity and mortality rates in our state, viz. , acute stomach flu, asthma, URTI and LRTI in Kuwait Teaching Hospital OPD, from 2006-2008. Methodology Present survey is a retrospective descriptive analysis of an bing database at paediatric OPD at Kuwait Teaching Hospital, KTH, Peshawar. Kuwait Teaching Hospital is an affiliate of Peshawar Medical College, an commissioned establishment of medical instruction. Pediatric OPD at KTH is of moderate volume with 60-80 OPD visits per twenty-four hours by kids belonging to middle to low socioeconomic category signifier the environing Jamrud Road and Tehkal country. Patients are largely cultural Afghans and Pashtuns. PMC Pediatrics is a well-equipped unit with inpatient bed strength of 35 beds and 5 neonatal isolates. It is staffed by 3 advisers 6 medical officers and 7 paediatric nurses. Study was approved by PMC Institutional Ethical Committee and informations aggregation was performed on site in KTH. Data was extracted from OPD and ward registries and patient medical records for admitted patients for old ages 2006, 2007 and 2008. Research workers met hebdomadal during informations extraction and informations entry clip and discussed jobs for common declaration. Operational definitions used were standard WHO/IMCI definitions. Acute Gastroenteritis was a kid less than 5 old ages age showing with history of increased frequence and reduced consistence of stool over past 24 hours with or without febrility and emesis. Upper Respiratory Tract Infection was child less than 5 old ages age showing with acute ear aching, sore pharynx, tonsillitis, spasmodic laryngitis or epiglottitis with moderate to severe respiratory hurt category harmonizing to IMCI categorization, Lower Respiratory Tract Infection was a kid less than 5 old ages showing with respiratory hurt harmonizing to IMCI categorization and chest X-ray findings consistent with lobar or bronchial pneumonia. Acute Exacerbation of Asthma was presence of respiratory hurt and wheezing in a kid less than 5 old ages age who was known to hold reactive air passages disease. Data was entered in Microsoft Excel 2007 and later analyzed for seasonal fluctuation. Graphs were constructed for each paediatric status under consideration and compared for consistence. Consequences A sum of 7209 patients were included in the survey reported in Kuwait Teaching Hospital OPD from January 2006 to December 2008. Entire figure of instances reported for Acute Gastroenteritis, Upper Respiratory Tract Infections, Asthma and Lower Respiratory Tract Infections were 3129, 1527, 1599, and 954 severally. 72.80 % of instances of AGE were reported in the months of April, May, June, July, August and September ( summer ) as shown in Figure 1. Patients with acute aggravation asthma reported most in the month of April ( spring ) ( 13.01 % ) and winter season. The Numberss of instances show a gradual addition from September to December ( winter ) ( 51.16 % ) as shown in figure 2. 61.36 % of instances of URTI were in the months of February, April, October, November and December. An addition in patient count was observed from the month of October to December ( 36.87 % of entire instances ) as shown in Figure 3. Extremums in the figure of patients reported for LRTI was observed in the months of April and July ( 15.93 % of entire ) and there was a gradual addition in patient count in winter months i.e. September, October, November, December and January ( 55.87 % of entire instances ) as shown in Figure 4. Year of Study Acute Gastroenteritis Upper Respiratory Infection Lower Respiratory Infection Acute Exacerbation of Asthma 2006 933 450 288 420 2007 1007 510 309 549 2008 1189 567 357 630 Entire 3129 1527 954 1599 Table: Entire figure of instances of selected diseases for each twelvemonth of survey at Kuwait Teaching Hospital Figure 1: Seasonal tendency of Acute Gastroenteritis ( AGE ) instances Figure2: Seasonal tendency of instances with acute aggravation of asthma Figure 3: Seasonal tendency of instances with acute aggravation of URTI Figure 4: Seasonal tendency of LRTI instances Discussion Our chief aim was to observe and document seasonal tendencies in paediatric unwellnesss with high morbidity and mortality rates in our state, viz. , acute stomach flu, Asthma, URTI and LRTI. Although seasonal tendencies of assorted wellness jobs have been studied by assorted research workers in Pakistan and other SAARC states. Areas of probe include childhood poisoning [ 15 ] and shot, [ 16 ] . Probe of seasonal tendencies of childhood unwellnesss in Pakistan has non been carried out to the authoraaÃ¢â¬Å¡Ã ¬aÃ¢â¬Å¾?s cognition. AGE exhibited a reasonably unvarying distribution form over the assorted old ages with regard to its seasonality. Higher sensing rate of AGE during the summer season may be explained due to assorted factors. First of all high temperature during this clip of the twelvemonth is thought to advance growing of morbific beings in the environment. [ 17 ] Furthermore, monsoon season causes a batch of strain on already unequal sewerage disposal system hence ensuing in a greater figure of incident instances. Particularly in the summers, the frequence of AGE towers above other paediatric diseases. The greater load of this disease exists in kids because of their under developed immune system. Asthma showed a bimodal distribution with its first extremum in spring and 2nd extremum in winters. The consequences clearly show that most people seek medical attention for Asthma in spring and winter. The rise in admittance for Asthma in spring may hold been related to increasing tree and grass pollen counts. The oncoming of cold conditions has been shown to be related to symptoms of asthma [ 18, 19, 20 ] . The acquisition of viral infections, [ 21 ] the seasonal prevalence of fungous spores, [ 22, 23 ] and the fluctuation in the house dust mite population [ 24, 25 ] may lend. The clear seasonal fluctuation is consistent throughout our state, proposing that similar environmental trigger factors are responsible for arousing onslaughts. Our consequences showed an addition in patient count with LRTI and URTI during the months of February, April, and July and in winter season in all the three old ages under survey. This may be due to the fact that people remain indoors during cold conditions. Due to shut contact in indoor environment, people, particularly kids, are more prone to acquire disease. The agents that cause LRTI are most frequently transmitted by droplet spread ensuing from close contact with a beginning instance. Contact with contaminated vehicles besides may be of import in the acquisition of viral agents, particularly RSV. Probably the somewhat fewer studies in summer were a manifestation of epidemic instead than seasonal fluctuation. For grounds that are unknown, different viruses cause extremums of infection at different times during the respiratory virus season ; these extremums rarely occur at the same time [ 26 ] . Seasonal tendencies are complex phenomena that require elaborate surveies with multipl e samples from diverse population beginnings over long periods of clip to be able to foretell seasonality of disease. Therefore, farther surveies with bigger samples and over longer continuance of clip are required to foreground the phenomena better in our set up. Decision A important seasonal fluctuation was observed in AGE, URTI, LRTI and Asthma. Summer received most instances of AGE. Most of the patients with Asthma were reported in spring and winter. A important addition in patient count with URTI was observed in winter and spring in all the three old ages. Most of the patients with LRTI were observed in winter and in the months of April and July. Further surveies with bigger samples and over longer continuance of clip are required to foreground this phenomena better. How to cite Seasonal Variation Common Pediatric Problems Health And Social Care Essay, Essay examples
Thursday, December 5, 2019
Question: Discuss about the Integrated Logistics Support System. Answer: Introduction: An integrated logistic support (ILS) system is an integrative and iterative process used in generation material and support approaches through optimization of functional support by influencing existing resources. ILS guides the organizations system engineering process to quantify and minimize on life cycle expenses while at the same time decreasing logistics footprint, making the entire process easy to support. In ILS, the decisions made are recorded in a life cycle sustainment plan (LCSP and it ensure that requirements for each element of the ILS is planned, financed and deployed. These specific steps enable the ILS to attain operational readiness level throughout the systems life cycle (Diebner, 2010). Initially the concept was introduced by the American Army to ensure supportability of equipment during the design and development phase. Some of the key characteristics of the ILS include: Influence on Design: the concept provides critical avenue to identify reliability concerns and can influence entire system or part design enhancements based on reliability, maintenance and testability of the equipment. Design of Support Solution with very little expenses: The system must be reliable with minimal resources channeled towards its development Initial support package: The phase includes computation of requirement for documentation, spare parts and special tools. The quantities anticipated within a particular time frame are computed, acquired, and delivered to support deployment of the device in question. The ILS management process is designed to simplify specification, design, engineering and testing of support system. Despite the fact that ILS is predominant in military, it has gained traction in commercial environments (Taylor, 2014). References Diener, P. (n.d.). SAPs View of Supply Chain Visibility: Managing Distributed Supply Chain Processes with the Help of Supply Chain Event Management (SCEM). Supply Chain Event Management, 4(21), 19th ser., 71-83. doi:10.1007/978-3-7908-1740-9_5 TAYLOR, D. H. (2014). Global cases in logistics and supply chain management. Boston, MA: ITP.