Monday, December 30, 2019
Early childhood educators are expected to know more about the brain development of the child, in order for him to read and write, but on the other hand, for the educator to communicate in a better way. The educators have to keep in mind the aspect of life where the children has to interact with the immediate environment and and sensory awareness. Moreover, the children has to learn to take responsibilities of their actions therefore, the educators role has expanded as there is a more complex and diverse society. Ã¢â¬Å"In December 2009, all Australian governments, through the Council of Australian Governments (COAG), agreed to a partnership to establish a National Quality Framework for Early Childhood Education and Care (Ã¢â¬ËNational Quality FrameworkÃ¢â¬â¢) for most long day care, preschool/ kindergarten, family day care and outside school hours care services in Australia. The National Quality Standard is a schedule to the National Regulations. The National Quality Standard sets a new national benchmark for the quality of education and care services. It also gives services and families a better understanding of a quality service. This enables families to make informed decisions about the services providing education and care to their child.Ã¢â¬ (NQF/NQS, 2013) Furthermore, the early childhood educator has the responsibility to guide the children towards the norms and values of the society and discipline. The respect of the existence of a variety of cultural or ethnic groups within t heShow MoreRelatedAustralian Government Policies, Initiatives And Legislative Requirements1075 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagespolicies, initiatives and legislative requirements and analyse how these documents influence curriculum, promote quality care and support the achievement of high quality outcomes for young children in Early Learning contexts. Introduction 200 words l Overview of the situation and identification of key issues. In 2012, the National Quality Framework (NQF) was introduced by the Australian Government and subsequently applied to majority of childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s education and care services. The framework is usedRead Morenational quality standards1389 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesÃ¯ » ¿ Task A: Research National quality standards National quality standard definition; Ã¢â¬Ëthe national quality standard is the benchmark for the quality of early childhood education and care in Australia.Ã¢â¬â¢ National Quality Standard (NQS) is the main aspect of the NQF which sets a national standard for early childhood education and care, and also outside school hours care services in Australia. It aims to promote; The safety, health and wellbeing of children A focus on achieving outcomesRead MoreDevelopment Of Exceptional And Special Needs Children Essay1672 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe early childhood sector is increasing rapidly across the Caribbean. Some of these centres just came about in an ad hoc manner due to the demand for day care services; recognising how important early childhood development is, governments and other officials are being faced with the task of ensuring that quality early childhood education is provided. This essay seeks to discuss teachersÃ¢â¬â¢ expectations, sensitivities, priorities and values that contribute to the quality of all pupils learning andRead MoreProfessional Development in Early Childhood Education Essay1320 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagestheir early childhood development are teacher professionals who have a passion and a genuine desire to help them learn, grow and succeed in their education. These are just a few roles that early childhood educators plays in the field of early childhood education for work ing with young children in their early childhood years of life, which the requirements, most of the time, are to have both a formal education and passing teacher-certification score. The National Association for Education of YoungRead MoreLifelong Learning and Education Quality1623 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesLifelong learning and education quality are the two topics prevailing in the contemporary international and national education policy documents. We tried to systematize the extensive and various literatures on the quality in education through two discourses on quality: quality assurance discourse and quality construction discourse (Table 1). Each of these discourses, with all the variations and different accents within them, is mainly shaped by the different understanding of the nature of the humanRead MoreLegal and Ethical Issues in Childcare1392 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesprotection among other things. (COAG) Families SA runs the Child Abuse Report Line on 131 478. The Report Line is the focal point where all child protection concerns are to be reported. There are three teams in operation during these times. 1) The standard Child Abuse Report Line team is made up of social workers. For the sake of integrity all mandatory notifications are reviewed on the day by senior social workers. 2) Aboriginal Family Practitioners man the Yaitya Tirramangkotti Line. 3) A specialRead MoreLife s Little Treasures Preschool1399 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesthrough our natural environments and a sociocultural philosophy of Early Childhood Education inspired by Lev Vygotsky (Berk, 2006). Our preschoolÃ¢â¬â¢s outdoor play area provides limitless opportunities for your children to learn through play, whilst acquiring respect and an appreciation for nature and their environment, working towards and achieving all five Early Years Learning Framework (EYLF) Outcomes (Australian Department of Education, Employment and Workplace, [ADEEW] , 2009) At our center we stronglyRead MoreThe North Carolina Pre K Program Requirements1471 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe North Carolina Pre-Kindergarten Program, formerly known as More at Four, is geared towards bettering the lives for At-Risk 4-year-old children. Exposing children to an early learning experience that will promote a positive learning environment to ensure Kindergarten readiness is what drives the program. Upon arrival, each child is screened using the Brigance 4-year-old tool to assess and determine the childÃ¢â¬â¢s developmental skills and abilities. According to the text, Ã¢â¬Å"Classroom tests and assessmentsRead MoreRegulatory Environment For Prior School Settings Essay1910 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesprior-to-school settings National Quality Framework (NQF) is the national framework developed by Australian Governments to provide better educational and developmental outcome for children (Education Council, 2014). The NQF sets a national quality benchmark for Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) and Outside School hour Care Services (OSCS) national wide (Education Council, 2014). It also acts as guideline for ECEC and OSCS to monitor their quality standards and practices (Education Council, 2014).Read MoreFederalism in Government Policy toward Education Essay1507 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesEducation is the key to our future and that is why it is such an important subject in the United States. Education relates to federalism by interacting with the national government, state governments, and local governments. Each level of government is responsible for improving education within their limits of power. The national government has been helping to improve and regulate education since 1965 when they passed the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA). The main purpose of this
Sunday, December 22, 2019
MALCOLM X Learning to Read Malcolm Little, born in Omaha, Nebraska, in 1925, was reborn Malcolm X in his twenties while imprisoned for burglary. (He considered Little a slave name and chose the X to signify his lost African tribal name.) His conversion to Islam under the Nation of Islam and his rigorous self-education led him to a life ofpolitical activism marked by hatred, violence, and hope. For a time, as the foremost spokesman of the Nation of Islam, Malcolm preached a separatist philosophy with racist rhetoric; on breaking with the Nation of Islam and converting to orthodox Islam after a pilgrimage to Mecca, Malcolm again changed his name (to El-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz) and philosophy, moving closer to the integrationist goalsÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦5 I was so fascinated that I went onÃ¢â¬âI copied the dictionarys ro next page. And the same experience came when I studied that. With every succeeding page, I also learned of people and places and events from history. Actually the dictionary is like a miniature encyclopedia. Finally the dictionarys A section had filled a whole tabletÃ¢â¬âand I went on into the Bs. That was the way I started copying what eventually became the entire dictionary. It went a lot faster after so much practice helped me to pick up handwriting speed. Between what I wrote in my tablet, and writing letters, during the rest of my time in prison I would guess I wrote a million words. I suppose it was inevitable that as my word-base broadened, I could for the first time pick up a book and read and now begin to understand what the book was saying. Anyone who has read a great deal can imagine the new world that opened. Let me tell you something: from then until I left that prison, in every free moment I had, i f I was not reading in the library I was reading on my bunk. You couldnt have gotten me out of books with a wedge. Between Mr. Muhammads teachings, my correspondence, my visitorsÃ¢â¬âusually Ella and ReginaldÃ¢â¬âand my reading of books, months passed without my even thinking about being imprisoned. In fact, up to then, I never had been so truly free in myShow MoreRelatedMalcom X And The Allegory Of The Cave854 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesare expanded they begin to understand and view more. The process of becoming knowledgeable through education can differ from the individual or situation. The overall experience as well can change the perception. Two passages, Ã¢â¬Å"Learning to ReadÃ¢â¬ by Malcom X and Ã¢â¬Å"The Allegory of the CaveÃ¢â¬ by Plato both contain an individual who goes through the path of gaining wisdom. Although both passages contain similarities involving one going through an experience resulting in the enlightenment of education, thereRead MoreMalcom X And Ri chard Wright1066 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesMelissa Coss Aquino English 11 Many people learn to write and read with the help of a formal education. Malcom X in Ã¢â¬Å"Learning to ReadÃ¢â¬ and Richard Wright in Ã¢â¬Å"The library CardÃ¢â¬ had none of these blessings. In spite of having great disadvantages both Malcom X and Wright became educated. Even though their journey to literacy have some significant differences, the resemblance are evident Malcom X and Richard Wright were incredibly resourceful and extremely self-motivated during their path towards literacyRead MoreA Homemade Education By Malcom X1379 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagessomething, that keeps them going when things get tough. Malcom X wanted to improve his writing, Lupe Quintanilla wanted to learn English, and I am motivated to receive a higher education. Drive, that is what all of these individuals have in common. Something in our lives lead us down the path to better our education it was a tough road but being motivated kept us going. In Malcom XÃ¢â¬â¢s short story, A Homemade Education, it talks about how Malcom was in prison and how he wanted to better his vocabularyRead MoreMalcom X And The Civil Rights Movement1105 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesAlgarni Ms. Kristi Brock ENG 101- College Writing (WC) 15 July 2015 Analysis of Ballot or Bullet On 3rd April 1964, Malcom X addressed the Negro community assembled in Cleveland over the controversial issue of the civil rights movement. Ã¢â¬Å"The Ballot or the BulletÃ¢â¬ speech of Malcom X can be considered as a direct response to Ã¢â¬Å"I have a DreamÃ¢â¬ speech of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Malcom X and Dr. Martin were taking a stand for the true freedom of the same community but with a diagonally opposite philosophiesRead MoreEssay Malcom X and Non-violence1008 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesMy life has always been one of changes (436). Malcolm X, throughout his life, was one of the most influential, and quite possibly the most effective, civil rights activists of the twentieth century. His radical ideas and views were widely sought after from the oppressed African-American population in the 1950s and 60s. The changes he underwent throughout his life affected his views of a racist America and inspired him to lead a dedicated life preaching, what he thought to be, the only methodRead MoreSimilarities Between Frederick Douglas And Malcom X1321 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesand Malcom X, two men who enlightened themselves without access to the wealth that tethers education to those of the upper class. Hard work and determination can win the day and bestow a freedom that only an advanced education offers. These two men are shining examples of what can be accomplished when someone refuses to be denied an education. This story tells about, Malcolm X and Fredrick Douglas, and how they found themselves trapped, uninformed, and rose above their demographics. Malcolm X wasRead MoreEssay on Exploring the Autobiography of Malcom X1068 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesmeans necessary. These words were spoken by Malcolm X, a civil rights leader and political activist. He is also the main character, narrator, and author of the Autobiography of Malcolm X. The autobiography takes place in various cities in the United States, such as Omaha, New York, and Detroit, as well as the Middle East, and Africa. Considering the type of literature this is, it is obvious to state that Malcolm X is the main character. Malcolm X, as a child, was intelligent and popular amongst hisRead MoreEssay Malcom X/Nation of Islam1489 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesfollowers who believed that Fard was actually god, in the form of man. Elijah Poole, later known as Elijah Muhammad, took over the Nation of Islam after FardÃ¢â¬â¢s disappearance in 1934. One Nation of Islam follower widely known for his work was Malcolm X. Malcolm X was born on May 19, 1925 under the name Malcolm Little, the fourth child of Rev. Earl and Louise Little. MalcolmÃ¢â¬â¢s father was of Baptist faith that preached on Sundays, and supported Universal Negro Improvement Association and Marcus Garvey, aRead MoreThe Autobiography of Malcom X by Alex Haley856 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pages The Autobiography of Malcolm X as told by Alex Haley is about a man who forever changed America. Malcolm X, born Malcolm Little and also known as El-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz spoke out against the effects of discrimination, racism and segregation. He went through many different stages in his life as he fought for equal treatment of colored individuals. The three stages that really changed the way Malcolm X thought were his experiences while incarcerated, his entering into the religion of Islam byRead MoreComparison of Martin Luther King, Jr and Malcom X1700 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesdo i t is with a ballot or a bullet. And if you re not ready to get involved with either one of those, you are satisfied with the status quo. That means we ll have to change you. (Malcom X) While Martin Luther King promoted non-violence, civil rights, and the end to racial segregation, a man of the name of Malcom X dreamed of a separate nation. Martin Luther King, Jr. was the conscience of his generation. A Southerner, a black man, he gazed upon the great wall of segregation and saw that the
Friday, December 13, 2019
Background: Seasonal fluctuation is an of import public wellness phenomenon. Many common human diseases display predictable seasonal tendencies depending upon direct or indirect factors act uponing patient results. Pakistan lacks clear cut informations about this issue. We will write a custom essay sample on Seasonal Variation Common Pediatric Problems Health And Social Care Essay or any similar topic only for you Order Now Seasonal fluctuation assumes critical importance when it comes to paediatric disease in our set up. Our under 5 old ages mortality is one of the highest in WHO-EMRO part. Aims A ; Aims: Present survey is aimed at observing and documenting seasonal tendencies in paediatric unwellnesss with highest morbidity and mortality rates in our state, viz. , acute stomach flu, asthma, URTI and LRTI. Material A ; Methods: Retrospective reappraisal of Pediatric OPD databases for three ( 2006-2008 ) consecutive old ages in Kuwait Teaching Hospital was carried out by the research workers and instances run intoing inclusion standards were entered in survey database. Data was analyzed for seasonal tendencies utilizing Microsoft Excel 2007. Consequences: Clear cut seasonal tendencies were seen in Acute Gastroenteritis, URTI, Asthma aggravation and LRTI. Each disease displayed one-year extremums for three back-to-back old ages. Decision: Major paediatric slayers in our state show predictable seasonal tendencies that can be used for better readiness and improved results in paediatric population Keywords: Seasonal fluctuation, Acute Gastroenteritis, Upper Respiratory Tract Infection, Lower Respiratory Tract Infection, Asthma, Pediatrics, List of Abbreviations AGE Acute Gastroenteritis EMRO East Mediterranean Regional Office IMCI Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesss KTH Kuwait Teaching Hospital LRTI Lower Respiratory Tract Infection OPD Out Patient Department PMC Peshawar Medical College RSV Respiratory Syncytial Virus URTI Upper Respiratory Tract Infection WHO World Health Organization List of Tables, Graphs and Figures Table 1: Entire figure of instances of selected diseases for each twelvemonth of survey at Kuwait Teaching Hospital Figure: Seasonal tendency of Acute Gastroenteritis ( AGE ) instances Figure: Seasonal tendency of instances with acute aggravation of asthma Figure: Seasonal tendency of instances with acute aggravation of URTI Figure: Seasonal tendency of LRTI instances Background Seasonal fluctuation is a well-known public wellness property of human unwellness. It is of import from epidemiologic position point and serves as an index of etiologies other than primary causative agent for a disease. Human immune responses, [ 1 ] , bacterial counts, [ 2, 3 ] , allergen denseness, exposure rates, [ 3, 4 ] and opportunity exposure, [ 5 ] are all seasonally determined. Bing able to foretell seasonal fluctuation in any disease is, intelligibly, an assistance in index of intuition, diagnosing and above all aaÃ¢â¬Å¡Ã ¬AÃ¢â¬Å"Emergency PreparednessaaÃ¢â¬Å¡Ã ¬A? and preventative steps to incorporate disease. Outside primary attention, seasonal fluctuation has been documented in admittance rates to intensive attention units ( United Kingdom ) , [ 6, 7 ] visits to the exigency section ( United States ) , [ 8 ] and all-cause mortality ( United Kingdom ) , [ 9 ] . Published surveies show seasonal fluctuation in the diagnosing of ischaemic bosom disease in general pattern ( United Kingdom ) , [ 10 ] and in the figure of visits to primary attention doctors ( Sweden ) . The Swedish survey, based on a 14-year observation period from 1969 to 1982, found that visits to primary attention doctors declined during July and August in relation to a diminution in diagnosings related to respiratory tract infections, and that there were no appreciable differences for the remainder of the twelvemonth. Season specific unwellnesss, [ 11, 12, 13 ] and mortality rates, [ 13, 14 ] are now being used to find several wellness parametric quantities and resource allotment in wellness sector. This makes finding of se asonal fluctuation an of import public wellness step particularly in catching diseases. Although Pakistan is endemic for several catching diseases, yet we do non hold sufficient informations to back up seasonal fluctuation for common primary attention jobs in our population. Bing a state that faces one of the highest under 5 mortality rates in the WHO-EMRO part, we carry the duty of sensing and certification of baseline informations for appropriate intercessions in paediatric unwellness. From a public wellness position, the current survey will assist us place the demand for intercession and formulate schemes on a larger graduated table to cut down under 5 yr. morbidity and mortality rates in our population. Present survey is a Pilot design to look into the seasonal fluctuation of common paediatric wellness jobs showing to a primary attention OPD in a metropolis of Pakistan. Aims: To observe and document seasonal tendencies in paediatric unwellnesss with highest morbidity and mortality rates in our state, viz. , acute stomach flu, asthma, URTI and LRTI in Kuwait Teaching Hospital OPD, from 2006-2008. Methodology Present survey is a retrospective descriptive analysis of an bing database at paediatric OPD at Kuwait Teaching Hospital, KTH, Peshawar. Kuwait Teaching Hospital is an affiliate of Peshawar Medical College, an commissioned establishment of medical instruction. Pediatric OPD at KTH is of moderate volume with 60-80 OPD visits per twenty-four hours by kids belonging to middle to low socioeconomic category signifier the environing Jamrud Road and Tehkal country. Patients are largely cultural Afghans and Pashtuns. PMC Pediatrics is a well-equipped unit with inpatient bed strength of 35 beds and 5 neonatal isolates. It is staffed by 3 advisers 6 medical officers and 7 paediatric nurses. Study was approved by PMC Institutional Ethical Committee and informations aggregation was performed on site in KTH. Data was extracted from OPD and ward registries and patient medical records for admitted patients for old ages 2006, 2007 and 2008. Research workers met hebdomadal during informations extraction and informations entry clip and discussed jobs for common declaration. Operational definitions used were standard WHO/IMCI definitions. Acute Gastroenteritis was a kid less than 5 old ages age showing with history of increased frequence and reduced consistence of stool over past 24 hours with or without febrility and emesis. Upper Respiratory Tract Infection was child less than 5 old ages age showing with acute ear aching, sore pharynx, tonsillitis, spasmodic laryngitis or epiglottitis with moderate to severe respiratory hurt category harmonizing to IMCI categorization, Lower Respiratory Tract Infection was a kid less than 5 old ages showing with respiratory hurt harmonizing to IMCI categorization and chest X-ray findings consistent with lobar or bronchial pneumonia. Acute Exacerbation of Asthma was presence of respiratory hurt and wheezing in a kid less than 5 old ages age who was known to hold reactive air passages disease. Data was entered in Microsoft Excel 2007 and later analyzed for seasonal fluctuation. Graphs were constructed for each paediatric status under consideration and compared for consistence. Consequences A sum of 7209 patients were included in the survey reported in Kuwait Teaching Hospital OPD from January 2006 to December 2008. Entire figure of instances reported for Acute Gastroenteritis, Upper Respiratory Tract Infections, Asthma and Lower Respiratory Tract Infections were 3129, 1527, 1599, and 954 severally. 72.80 % of instances of AGE were reported in the months of April, May, June, July, August and September ( summer ) as shown in Figure 1. Patients with acute aggravation asthma reported most in the month of April ( spring ) ( 13.01 % ) and winter season. The Numberss of instances show a gradual addition from September to December ( winter ) ( 51.16 % ) as shown in figure 2. 61.36 % of instances of URTI were in the months of February, April, October, November and December. An addition in patient count was observed from the month of October to December ( 36.87 % of entire instances ) as shown in Figure 3. Extremums in the figure of patients reported for LRTI was observed in the months of April and July ( 15.93 % of entire ) and there was a gradual addition in patient count in winter months i.e. September, October, November, December and January ( 55.87 % of entire instances ) as shown in Figure 4. Year of Study Acute Gastroenteritis Upper Respiratory Infection Lower Respiratory Infection Acute Exacerbation of Asthma 2006 933 450 288 420 2007 1007 510 309 549 2008 1189 567 357 630 Entire 3129 1527 954 1599 Table: Entire figure of instances of selected diseases for each twelvemonth of survey at Kuwait Teaching Hospital Figure 1: Seasonal tendency of Acute Gastroenteritis ( AGE ) instances Figure2: Seasonal tendency of instances with acute aggravation of asthma Figure 3: Seasonal tendency of instances with acute aggravation of URTI Figure 4: Seasonal tendency of LRTI instances Discussion Our chief aim was to observe and document seasonal tendencies in paediatric unwellnesss with high morbidity and mortality rates in our state, viz. , acute stomach flu, Asthma, URTI and LRTI. Although seasonal tendencies of assorted wellness jobs have been studied by assorted research workers in Pakistan and other SAARC states. Areas of probe include childhood poisoning [ 15 ] and shot, [ 16 ] . Probe of seasonal tendencies of childhood unwellnesss in Pakistan has non been carried out to the authoraaÃ¢â¬Å¡Ã ¬aÃ¢â¬Å¾?s cognition. AGE exhibited a reasonably unvarying distribution form over the assorted old ages with regard to its seasonality. Higher sensing rate of AGE during the summer season may be explained due to assorted factors. First of all high temperature during this clip of the twelvemonth is thought to advance growing of morbific beings in the environment. [ 17 ] Furthermore, monsoon season causes a batch of strain on already unequal sewerage disposal system hence ensuing in a greater figure of incident instances. Particularly in the summers, the frequence of AGE towers above other paediatric diseases. The greater load of this disease exists in kids because of their under developed immune system. Asthma showed a bimodal distribution with its first extremum in spring and 2nd extremum in winters. The consequences clearly show that most people seek medical attention for Asthma in spring and winter. The rise in admittance for Asthma in spring may hold been related to increasing tree and grass pollen counts. The oncoming of cold conditions has been shown to be related to symptoms of asthma [ 18, 19, 20 ] . The acquisition of viral infections, [ 21 ] the seasonal prevalence of fungous spores, [ 22, 23 ] and the fluctuation in the house dust mite population [ 24, 25 ] may lend. The clear seasonal fluctuation is consistent throughout our state, proposing that similar environmental trigger factors are responsible for arousing onslaughts. Our consequences showed an addition in patient count with LRTI and URTI during the months of February, April, and July and in winter season in all the three old ages under survey. This may be due to the fact that people remain indoors during cold conditions. Due to shut contact in indoor environment, people, particularly kids, are more prone to acquire disease. The agents that cause LRTI are most frequently transmitted by droplet spread ensuing from close contact with a beginning instance. Contact with contaminated vehicles besides may be of import in the acquisition of viral agents, particularly RSV. Probably the somewhat fewer studies in summer were a manifestation of epidemic instead than seasonal fluctuation. For grounds that are unknown, different viruses cause extremums of infection at different times during the respiratory virus season ; these extremums rarely occur at the same time [ 26 ] . Seasonal tendencies are complex phenomena that require elaborate surveies with multipl e samples from diverse population beginnings over long periods of clip to be able to foretell seasonality of disease. Therefore, farther surveies with bigger samples and over longer continuance of clip are required to foreground the phenomena better in our set up. Decision A important seasonal fluctuation was observed in AGE, URTI, LRTI and Asthma. Summer received most instances of AGE. Most of the patients with Asthma were reported in spring and winter. A important addition in patient count with URTI was observed in winter and spring in all the three old ages. Most of the patients with LRTI were observed in winter and in the months of April and July. Further surveies with bigger samples and over longer continuance of clip are required to foreground this phenomena better. How to cite Seasonal Variation Common Pediatric Problems Health And Social Care Essay, Essay examples
Thursday, December 5, 2019
Question: Discuss about the Integrated Logistics Support System. Answer: Introduction: An integrated logistic support (ILS) system is an integrative and iterative process used in generation material and support approaches through optimization of functional support by influencing existing resources. ILS guides the organizations system engineering process to quantify and minimize on life cycle expenses while at the same time decreasing logistics footprint, making the entire process easy to support. In ILS, the decisions made are recorded in a life cycle sustainment plan (LCSP and it ensure that requirements for each element of the ILS is planned, financed and deployed. These specific steps enable the ILS to attain operational readiness level throughout the systems life cycle (Diebner, 2010). Initially the concept was introduced by the American Army to ensure supportability of equipment during the design and development phase. Some of the key characteristics of the ILS include: Influence on Design: the concept provides critical avenue to identify reliability concerns and can influence entire system or part design enhancements based on reliability, maintenance and testability of the equipment. Design of Support Solution with very little expenses: The system must be reliable with minimal resources channeled towards its development Initial support package: The phase includes computation of requirement for documentation, spare parts and special tools. The quantities anticipated within a particular time frame are computed, acquired, and delivered to support deployment of the device in question. The ILS management process is designed to simplify specification, design, engineering and testing of support system. Despite the fact that ILS is predominant in military, it has gained traction in commercial environments (Taylor, 2014). References Diener, P. (n.d.). SAPs View of Supply Chain Visibility: Managing Distributed Supply Chain Processes with the Help of Supply Chain Event Management (SCEM). Supply Chain Event Management, 4(21), 19th ser., 71-83. doi:10.1007/978-3-7908-1740-9_5 TAYLOR, D. H. (2014). Global cases in logistics and supply chain management. Boston, MA: ITP.
Thursday, November 28, 2019
Case Summary This case discusses FedEx Corporation and the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s strategic management. The case is divided into strategic business operation and strategic human resource management sections. The case begins with examining the origin of the FedEx Corporation. This part entails a brief overview of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s financing and the way the company managed to establish its human resource operations.Advertising We will write a custom case study sample on FedEx CorporationÃ¢â¬â¢s Strategic Management specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The first part of the case brings out issues of strategic business operation. This part discusses the strategic plan that was unveiled by the company in the year 2000. The plan was aimed at improving how business operations in the company are executed and generating more revenues. The plan also aimed at enhancing strategic business practices in the company. Such practices include acquisitio n, marketing/advertising strategies, the orientation of delivery services, issues of competitiveness, and the financial position of the company. The second part of the paper focuses on issues of strategic management. A discussion of performance management in the company is presented in this part. Management of technology, communication, employee retention, and the benefits scheme of the company has been explained in this section. Issue exploration It is vital to note that FedEx Corporation is a logistics company that deals with delivery of mails and goods. The company is based in the United States. There are a lot of dynamics in the logistical sector. The dynamics entail the nature of goods and services that are delivered by the company, the change in the means of transport and communication to ensure efficiency in the delivery of goods, and the management of the customers and the employees at the same time. The changing costs of transportation come out as one of the critical issues in the management of business in the company. The company made quick progress upon beginning its operations. However, profits flopped significantly a few years after its operations in the field of mail delivery had picked up. The flop was caused by the rise in the prices of crude oil in the international market, which caused a rise in costs of transportation. Competition has also been on the rise in terms of services and prices (Dawkins Brockmann, n.d.).Advertising Looking for case study on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The other critical issue facing the company as presented in the case concerns the segmentation of business operations and ensuring effective management of segmented business operations. The company was divided into two main segments: FedEx logistics, a segment that provides supply chain solutions to companies and individuals. This is a complex section since it involves different operati ons like information, transportation, and physical logistical services. The other section is the FedEx Custom Critical, which deals with delivery of special types of goods under special shipment arrangements. This segment also deals with delivery of goods that are to be delivered within certain restricted timelines. There is also the FedEx Trade Network and Viking. Meeting the specifications of customers is among the most challenging factors in shipping and delivery of goods in diverse locations. Managing a large set of customers is also a challenge going with the fact that the company has expanded its operational capacity, meaning that the number of customers has also gone high (Dawkins Brockmann, n.d.). Appropriate theories and or concepts relevant to the problems/issues identified FedEx is a fairly recent company in the logistics industry of the United States. The competitiveness of the company is attributed to the operational strategies that have been applied in business advanc ement. However, there are a number of issues that are presented in the case that point to critical issues of management, which denote the application of several theories and models of strategic management (Dawkins Brockmann, n.d.). Several theories, as well as concepts of strategic management can be used to explore various strategic management issues in the case. Theories and models of organizational behaviour are highly applicable to this case. The issue of managing performance in FedEx implies the need to put into practice the theories of employee motivation. Motivational theories have been applied in the management of employees through paying attention to their needs. Marketing theories are also fundamental in this case as the firm has been making efforts to position itself in the dynamic industry and the market. Strategic positioning has been one of the crucial initiatives of the company since it began its operations in 1974. Models of strategic positioning through the deployme nt of practices like technology management and innovation, therefore, play out well in the case (Dawkins Brockmann, n.d.).Advertising We will write a custom case study sample on FedEx CorporationÃ¢â¬â¢s Strategic Management specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Explanation and Elaboration of issues using key theories and concepts Beginning with the dynamics in transportation, it has been observed that the company faced a problem of adjusting the cost of transportation. This is a strategic issue that needs the application of cost minimization strategies. One of the fundamental strategic areas of management entails planning for the finances of the company. In the case, it comes out that the financial problem came out of the establishment of numerous operations by the company. FedEx broadened its operations in line with the opportunities that existed in the market. According to the theories of financial management, a rise in expenditu re calls for a cut down in expenses in other operations. The uncertainty that arises from fluctuation in the prices of fuel in the international market, therefore, needs flexibility in terms of other managerial operations other than pricing since pricing can easily result in the loss of customers (Dawkins Brockmann, n.d.). Competitive differentiation is another critical area of competitiveness in the operation of FedEx. There are several issues that are pointed out in the case concerning the competitive position of the company in the market. Companies often adopt different strategies that help them adapt to the market and set up a competitiveness scale that enables them attain a favourable competitive advantage. Several strategies have been applied in the management of FedEx to help the company position itself in the market, in spite of the existing competition in the market. There are two main strategies that were widely applied in the cultivation of a competitive landscape in the company. These are managing through acquisition and segmentation of business operations. Beginning with segmentation, FedEx divided the operations of the company into four main operating segments, with each segment denoting a given area of operation (Dawkins Brockmann, n.d.). Business segmentation is a strategy of business management that aims at helping a company to serve its customers well by ensuring comprehensive operations in each service offering area.Advertising Looking for case study on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The logistics industry is broadening and the changes in the industry present opportunities for the company, which can only be utilized through deployment of effective strategies such as segmenting operations to increase the scale of serving the needs of customers. The other competitive strategy that has been applied by the company was managing through acquisition. This is a tactic that is often used in the contemporary management of companies. Customer management is an important factor of management because customers are the main targets of any business (Mello, 2011). Managing customers can be a complex affair if the company does not plan on how to structure its human resource functions in a manner that gives preference to customers. Customer management entails two main activities that must be implemented together to achieve success. These are managing the needs and expectations of customers, as well as managing customer relationship. There is a slight difference between the two. Cu stomer relationship management is quite broad in scope. It entails the establishment and sustenance of relations with customers. On the other hand, customer needs and expectationsÃ¢â¬â¢ management is quite specific since it links customers directly to the company through purchasing of the services of the company (Mello, 2011). As mentioned earlier, customer management in FedEx was greatly improved by segmenting business operations. The different operational segments deal with a certain range of operations, an aspect that makes it easy for customers to get the services that they demand from the company. The different business segments FedEx deals in when offering certain types of logistics services enhance efficiency in the management of the needs and the relations between customers and the company (Mello, 2011). This is one of the main operational strengths of the company. The diverse sets of customers in the seemingly competitive industry and market are also an operational streng th. Each operational segment specializes in certain services, a factor that enables each of the segments to perfect the operational issues revolving under services in that area of specialization. This improved the rate of response to the needs of customers in FedEx Corporation (Dawkins Brockmann, n.d.). Acquisitions have been crucial in the expansion of the company since it began its operations. Acquisitions reduce the costs of expansion by the company and increase the rate of adaptability in the market and the new business segment or the new market in which a company ventures into. What has come out in the case is that the company has been quite strategic when it comes to the choice of firms to partner with. The choice of a strategic partner can either be a building or a barring factor to the performance of the company. Most of the acquisitions FedEx has had have turned out positive. In making its acquisitions, the company targeted firms that had deep operations in certain busines s areas that FedEx was interested in venturing into. A number of the companies that were acquired by FedEx continued to operate as subsidiaries (Dawkins Brockmann, n.d.). According to Mello (2011), the strategic management of human resources is another critical exercise in the company. According to the theories of organizational behaviour, managing employees is a complex task, yet it is one of the most critical functions in as far as the performance of employees is concerned. This emanates from the fact that managing employees entails the management of the needs, emotions, as well as the expectations of employees. This is what guarantees productivity of employees. Several tactics of strategic human resource management have been applied in the management of employees in FedEx. These tactics denote the embrace of total quality management principles. Human resource development is replicated in the recruitment, training, and the retention strategies of FedEx. The company has a comprehe nsive benefit scheme, which denotes the deployment of the MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s theory of hierarchy of needs (Dawkins Brockmann, n.d.). According to Jackson, Schuler and Werner (2012), managing through technology is an essential factor of competitiveness in the modern management environment. FedEx has developed a technological system that allows it to effectively manage its employees. The company uses PRISM HRIS, which is a virtual system that is used in tracking all the employees of the company. Employees are able to monitor their performance through the system. This also applies to the management, which is able to monitor the track record of performance of employees (Dawkins Brockmann, n.d.). According to Mello (2011), communication is a critical factor in the management of employees in FedEx. There are different models of communication that are adopted by the organization. The level of precision in communication depends on the model of communication that is used by the organization. Most organizations are de-bureaucratizing their operations. Adoption of horizontal communication is, therefore, highly desired in the management of employees. Updating employees with all the required organizational information ups their morale. Several programs have been developed by the company to ensure that employees get all vital information, besides being able to give their response to the organizational management. The company also embraces cross-functional communication. This ensures effective feedback between the employees and the customers (Mello, 2011). Learning Outcomes This case presents several comprehensive aspects of strategic management. From this case, several lessons in strategic management can be derived: Strategic management is a dual process that entails crafting of business strategies, as well as human resource strategies. Human resource management strategies help in implementing strategic business operations in the company. A company has to be efficient in it s operations to be successful in a dynamic market. The company should be in a position to single out opportunities and challenges to emerge successful in the industry. Strategy is a critical factor in the attainment of a competitive position in the market. References Dawkins, M., Brockmann, E. (n.d.). FedEx Corporation. pp. 688-707 Jackson, S. E., Schuler, R. S., Werner, S. (2012). Managing human resources. Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning. Mello, J. A. (2011). Strategic management of human resources. Australia: South-Western/Cengage Learning. 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Monday, November 25, 2019
Ap World Dbq Christian and Islam Attitude Towards Merchants Essay Example Ap World Dbq Christian and Islam Attitude Towards Merchants Paper Ap World Dbq Christian and Islam Attitude Towards Merchants Paper Using the Documents, compare and contrast the differences of Christian and Islamic attitudes towards merchants until about 1500. From a review of the 7 documents presented, it is clear that Christianity and Islam condemned inequitable trade, which led to many Christians and Muslims to look down upon merchants; however, honest business, especially as a merchant, is honored highly. In fact, the Quran compares fair merchants to martyrs which were some of the holiest people of all [D2]. However, many Christian and Muslim believers found most merchants to be dishonest and greedy. A Christian scholar describes a merchants job and then concludes that when a person sells something for more than it is worth, it is unjust and unlawful [D4]. An influential Muslim scholar ventured to say that flattery, and evasiveness, litigation and disputation were all characteristic of a merchants profession [D5]. Even common people, like a Christian mother scolds her own son, a merchant, for being greedy [D6]. Muslim law, as time went one, continued to allowed merchants to trade, but some instances of trade were rebuked by whole towns [D7]. Many encouraged generosity and viewed a merchant turning from his profession as a good thing as seen in Godrics life, who was a merchant and then devoted his life to charity and solitude [D3]. Furthermore, the Bible warns all that it is extremely hard for a rich man to enter the kingdom of heaven [D1]. Also, to fully understand how Christianity and Islam viewed merchants. From Christians viewed merchants as often easily corrupted by riches, whereas Islam encouraged fair trade; however by 1500, Christians and Muslims both viewed merchants as immoral, unjust people. The Bible never specifically addressed merchants, whereas the Quran did. The holy book of the Muslims specifically named merchants as good people, but only if they were honest. Unequal transactions, however, were condemned by both Islam and Christianity. Both faiths glorified fair dealings between people, though. Thomas Aquinas clearly states to sell a thing for more than its worth, or to buy it for less than its worth, is unjust. [D4] This clearly shows why Christianity is opposed to merchants business in 1273. Ibn Khaldun, in the 14th century, also explains why he and other Muslims view erchants are not worthy of respect. Aquinas and Khaldun clarify why their faiths look down upon merchants. Also, a merchants mother gave the perspective of a common Christians view of merchants. Her obvious chastisement and command to crave not for all; you already have enough to suffice you! [D6]. Common people also thought merchants craved for money, as seen in this mothers letter. Islam and Chr istianity always to commended honest business and condemned greedy, inequitable trade; however, Islam did have a high opinion of merchants but came to agree with Christians that merchants were not respectable. Between 70 CE and 1500 CE, Christians and Muslims changed in their opinion of merchants, but stayed the same in their view of equitable transactions between people. Matthew, in the New Testament, records Jesus commenting on how hard it is for rich people to have their hearts in the right place, but he doesnt condemn the people for having money [D1]. Christians didnt specifically revile merchants specifically at this point in 70 CE. The honest, truthful Muslim merchant was praised for his reputable work, even being compared to martyrs in the Quran [D2]. As time went on, educated Christian and Muslim scholars began to voice why they both believed merchants to be immoral people [D4 and D5]. Merchants jobs were described as needing flattery, and evasiveness, litigation and disputation, and in the eyes of Muslims, this was sinful and disgraceful [D5]. In Christianity and Islam, in later years both hold merchants in low regard, but earlier on had varying opinions of money and merchants. The attitudes towards merchants varied between different sources; the holy books had a different written record of its outlook on merchants than other people recorded. The Bible warns people of the dangers of riches because Jesus claimed that it would be easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle, than for a rich man to enter heaven [D1]. This Holy Scripture is considered to be absolute truth to Christians, so this influenced the Christian mentality toward wealthy people. On the other hand, the Quran gives a blessing to a truthful Muslim merchant [D2]. However, religious scholars judged merchants more harshly. A Muslim scholar scolded merchants because their trade inevitably affect[ed] [their] soul [D5]. Aquinas viewed trade as unjust and unlawful. Commoners such as a merchants mother scolded her son because he was greedy although he had aqquir[ed] great riches in this world [D6]. The Holy Scriptures didnt condemn merchants directly, whereas the writings of other people of faith did. While Reginalds personal account of his friends life is helpful in understanding a Chrisitians view on the life of a merchant, it is, however, bias because R eginald was a monk, and monks were raised with a very dismal view of anything that didnt pertain to God [D3]. In the 2nd Century, monks were distinguished Christians who devoted their entire life to their faith. They were a part of asceticism, which was a mentality that the world was completely evil and material objects were only a hindrance to their faith. Ascetics denied themselves of almost every pleasure that wasnt from the worship or will of God. Since monks were raised with the sole mindset that money and worldly goals and aspirations were evil, it makes sense that Reginald would consider a merchants life full of great labors and only bearing of worthless worldly gain [D3]. He stated that Godric was yearning with his whole heart for greed and money, and not for God. However, as soon as Godric gave up his profession for a life similar to a monks, Reginald characterized Godrics life as devoted to Gods honor and service [D3]. Naturally, Reginalds account of St. Godric would be bias because of his strict, ascetic mindset towards money and worldly possessions. Although a personal letter correspondence between a merchant provides insight to the personal lives of merchants, it is bias because the merchant doesnt want to spend much money on religious paintings, but his mother wants him to be a religious man [D6]. The Italian merchant is objective about the cost and appearance of the paintings he will buy because he doesnt want to waste his hard earned money. Naturally, this is a motive for him besides his dedication to his faith. His mother on the other hand wants him to buy something beautiful in the name of the Lord and chastises him for toil[ing] so much only or the good of strangers [D6]. She wants him to buy the paintings so that she feels he is devoted to the God she believes will judge him one day. She is frustrated and demands he crave not for all because he already [has] enough to suffice him! [D6]. This letter is bias because the merchant doesnt wish to waste money and the mother wants him to buy religious paintings. While the given documents are sufficient, 2 more additional documents can help us further our understanding of Islams and Christianitys attitudes towards merchants. In the New Testament, 1 Timothy chapter 6, it says that the love of money is the root of all evil. This further explains that the Bible doesnt condemn merchants, but the unhealthy obsession of money which many merchants possess. This passage heavily affected peoples opinion of merchants because a merchant spend nearly all of his time buying and selling goods for the sole purpose of acquiring wealth. Also, to understand another cultures perspective on merchants, a Confucian writing from the Ming Dynasty would be helpful. This document describes the social hierarchy at the time. In the 14th century, merchants were considered beneath many social classes. The society also looked down upon merchants, even though the Chinese were mostly Confucian and didnt believe in a deity. This widespread mentality towards merchants could also affected Christians and Muslims opinions on the profession. The excerpt from the New Testament and the Confucian document furthermore support that many cultures looked down upon merchants. From a review of all the documents, it is clear from religious texts and written accounts of believers opinions on merchants that Muslims and Christians praised fair trade, but condemned most merchants because many merchants were not honest.
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Bringing organizational change and leadership to Ford Motor Company - Research Paper Example Leadership and the communication processes that are executed within the provided organizational environment have been proved by numerous evidences to be quite effective in determining the growth prospect of the organization. As stated by Quirke (2008), internal communication implemented in the working culture of an organization can work miracles when accumulated with effective leadership to turn strategies into actions (Quirke, 2008). Consequently, the aspect of leadership also plays a significant role in influencing the appropriateness and efficacy of the strategies adapted with due consideration to the internal communication. Therefore, both the aspects, i.e. leadership and communication can be stated as equally crucial in the modern perspective of business. In order to elaborate on the fact and identify the affectivity of these two most crucial aspects of modern business management, the paper shall emphasize on the organizational changes and leadership styles implied by Ford Motor s. It is worth mentioning that along with several other companies and its nearest and traditional competitors, i.e. GM and Chrysler, Ford Motors also had to fight against the recent global recession. In the year 2008, the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s status was mounted with loads of debts and down-falling sales. This global stress faced by the auto industry led the company to refurbish its balance sheets through fresh strategies and a new outlook by 2010. This amendment included the appointing of a new CEO, Mr. Alan Mulally under whose supervision the company has to follow a comprehensive organizational change in the due course of its operations (The New York Times, 2011). The example of Ford Motors and its operations have laid remarkable evidence in re-defining the impact of efficient leadership and effective communication within the organizational hierarchy. In this milieu, the paper shall object to discuss the various aspects of leadership and communication methods implied in the realistic p ractices of the company. Another aim of the paper is to identify the problems related to the organization and intend to conclude certain relevant strategic measures to be beneficial for the company in its further performance. Company Overview Today, Ford Motors is recognized as one of the leading automobile companies in the international market with its origination in 1903. The company is a US based multinational company incorporated with designing, manufacturing, assembling and marketing its products to a wide range of customer all around the world. The company until 2010 had more than 90 plants operating worldwide. It presently employs almost 198,000 employees (Ford Motor Company, 2009). Since 1994 the company acquired the second position in the global automobile industry. It was in the year 1999 when the company earned its record profit amounted to $7.2 billion, which was followed by the purchase of Volvo as an investment strategy in the European market. In the following year the company purchased another brand, Land Rover and incorporated a new plant named Premier Automotive Group. This expansion strategy was expected by the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s officials to be quite beneficial in achieving extra amount of profits through rejuvenated sales worldwide. But in its realistic practices, the company faced a gradual fall both in terms of sustainability and sales. For instance, the company was facing disputes among its workers in various plants. One of its major competitors Toyota had surpassed the company in terms of annual sales in 2006 (The New York Times, 2011). It is notable that a major reason which increased the chances for such occurrences was strategic announcement made by the company to shed more than 14,000 salaried and 30,000
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
The Awareness of Mental Health among the American Public - Essay Example The total number of death cases in the Civil War is almost the same as the death cases in almost all other wars combined. Furthermore, more than one out of every five white men who participated in the war died (Vinovskis 1990, as cited in Costa n.d.). Studies about the prisoners of war (POWs) during World War II and the Korean War also suggest that they have higher risks of death from diseases involving the heart and greater prevalence rates or neurological and psychological disorders (Beebe 1980, as cited in Costa n.d.). The baby boomers, on the other hand, are so concerned with their health that herbal medicine's popularity increased significantly in the last decade. The television and magazines are full of advertisements about alternative ways to fight diseases, maintain good body resistance, and most importantly, aging. But what about mental health Is the American public so busy about hiring nurses from third world countries to attend to the health needs of the veterans of war Or are we busier in finding better ways to prevent aging How was the public's awareness of mental health different from the pre-war period "The mental health system in the United States has moved well beyond the official ignorance that prevailed in the 1970s and now recognizes PTSD as a diagnosable disorder. Armed with this diagnosis and prodded by veterans, rape victims, and survivors of genocide, we have begun to appreciate the profound and sometimes irreversible changes produced by overwhelming stress. These include fundamental alterations in perception, cognition, behavior, emotional reactivity, brain function, personal identity, worldview, and spiritual beliefs." (Freidman 2005). The previous passage may have been an answer. The world wars taught us so much about mental disorders: PTSD and other trauma, amnesia, psychosis among others. Before, psychologists who were treating veterans who were traumatized a decade or two after their war experiences did not worry that the certain mental illness the veterans may have has a stigma attached to it. Such stigma usually prevents disclosure of PTSD symptoms, thus, makes treatment and therapy difficult, or worse, impossible. Today, psychologists look at every aspect in which the environment or the society might affect a traumatized person directly, or via stigmas (Friedman 2005). From cases of mental disorders acquired by the veterans and victims of war, the awareness of mental health problems spread to the other sectors of the public. We now recognize that experiences need not be as grave as a genocide in order to worry about PTSD or other mental disorder. Other kinds of events like accidents, abuse, and disasters may also cause mental disorders. However, it seems illogical that we do not to pay as much attention to mental health as we do on beauty and anti-aging products. Yes, we may have progressed in terms of psychological treatment and research, and yes, we have increased awareness on mental health, but what is lacking is the promotion of mental health, especially to citizens of lower socio-economic status. We know very well that the elite can afford psychiatrists and psychologists, and there are many of them around. What about the common man Why isn't there a single television advertisement on mental health, or at least
Monday, November 18, 2019
The Effects of Fast Food - Research Paper Example Its aggressive popularity can be assessed from the fact that in the year 1970, the amount of money used for the purchase of fast food was 6 billion dollars but in the year 2000, greater than 110 billion dollars were spent by the Americans on fast food. It can hence be concluded that the citizens of the United States expend a higher sum for utilizing fast food in comparison to their expenditures which include education or purchase of automobiles or new technological gadgets (Schlosser 3). The boom of the fast food industry has brought with it many effects on the American society which are not only restricted to the health of an individual but also include economic, environmental as well as cultural effects. The fast paced lifestyle of the Americans has driven them to increase their consumption of fast food and this had led to increased intake of food with low nutritive value and comprising mainly of fats. Fast food consumers do not tend to have a balanced diet and the ratio of fats an d carbohydrates consumed is much higher than is needed. Furthermore, important food components like milk, fibers and fruits are skipped from the diet due to increased fast food eating. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in the United States, 11.3 percent of the daily caloric intake of individuals in the United States was from fast food between the years 2007 till 2010. This excessive consumption of fast food is greatly linked with a rise in the weight of an individual as increased calories are consumed in comparison to the amount of calories that are burnt (Bowman et al 112; Fryar and Ervin 1,5). Thus, a sharp rise in the statistics of obesity has been identified in the United States. Numerous studies have also highlighted this fact that the easy availability of fast food along with a rise in the intake of fast food has promoted obesity. This has provided for a rise in the obese individuals as well as the diseases related to obesity (Jeffery & French 277,278 ; Edelstein & Sharlin 240). The negative effects incurred on the health of an individual are many and recent studies have been indicating the fact that these health effects are not only associated with obesity. According to one study, it was highlighted that fast food has a very bad impact on the integrity of the optimum functioning of the liver of an individual. The liver cells do not perform optimally and increased consumption could eventually lead to inflammation followed by liver failure (Daily Mail Reporter). Another study conducted by the Canadian Journal of Cardiology explained the fact that even a single fast food meal could affect the structure and functions of the blood vessels in the human body. This altered structure could then lead to the pathological condition known as atherosclerosis (Kirkpatrick). The health effects of fast food can best be demonstrated by researching upon the lifestyle of the individuals residing in the city of Loma Linda in California. The average life expectancy of the people residing in the city is above 80 years and this has been due to the vegan diet of the people residing there. This has also been linked with the absence of many fast food restaurants in the city. Thus, healthy eating habits are the main cause for the healthier lives of the people of Loma Linda (Medina). The fast food industry has also been linked with many negative effects on the environment. These include the pollution which results due to the disposal
Friday, November 15, 2019
Funding on Flat Per Diem Rate 1. According to the case scenario this report will discuss funding on flat Per diem rate in comparison with funding on DRG basis and there positive and negative aspects. Flat per diem rate funding is defined as a prospective payment method in which a provider is reimbursed at a definite rate depending on the number of days a covered patient is hospitalised. To decide the cost by Per Diem method, number of days a patient is hospitalised are multiplied by per diem rate. In case previous data is not available then the providers and third party payers consider factors including volume of services provided, length of stay and how severe was the patient illness. The advantages of per diem are due to the fact that as payment is made on daily basis the hospital benefits by increasing the length of stay and also enhance the number of inpatient admission. (2) Due to the hospital incentive involved more attention is given to patients and when after treatment of primary diagnosis is complete they shift to secondary diagnosis treatment. The disadvantages of per diem are that as payments are made daily this method is not cost effective for the patients. (2) There is an increase in number of admissions and also the length of stay of patients. The Diagnosis Related Group (DRG) system is a classification in which patients are grouped on basis of comparable diagnosis, treatment, utilisation of resources, cost and length of stay.(WHO 2007) The merits are due to reason as DRG providers are recompensed on a fixed rate there is a cogent motivation for cost containment. (2) It is beneficial as the Length of stay and hospitalisation is reduced. (3) Earlier they were used for inpatients but now they are also used for ambulatory patients.(CISS 2005) The demerits of DRG are the patients which require services for long term but are discharged early. (2) Though this system is speedy but in some cases the patient recovery is not up to the mark as a result there is an increase in number of readmissions.(Casto, Layman Association 2006) 2. This report provides instances of DRG split and identifies the most recent version of AR-DRG used in Australia. The instances where DRG had been split according to age and complexity involve cases of viral illness, bronchitis and asthma for the former and cases of diabetes, injuries for the later. T63A Viral illness Age>59 or W CC T63B Viral illness Age E69A Bronchitis and Asthma Age>49 W CC E69B Bronchitis and Asthma (Age49 W/O CC) E69C Bronchitis and Asthma Age K60A Diabetes W Catastrophic or severe CC K60B Diabetes W/O Catastrophic or severe C X60A Injuries Age>64 W CC X60B Injuries Age>64 W/O CC (Ministry of Health 2009/10) Splitting of AR-DRG in recent version of Victoria was in AR-DRG D06Z Mastoid, sinus and complex middle ear procedures which was split into Vic-DRG D06A Mastoid procedures Vic-DRG D06B other sinus and complex middle ear procedure.(Department of Health 2014) Most recent version of DRG being used in Australia is version 6.x for grouping the patients and establishing cost. The coding for diagnosis and the procedures utilised ICD-10-AM Eighth edition. AR-DRG version 6.x is the prescribed grouping for admitted patients of acute care for ABF (Activity Based Funding) in 2012-13 and 2013-14. Release of version 7.0 was due in July 2013 but will be enforced for ABF till July 2014. AR DRG v6.0x reinstituted ten DRGÃ¢â¬â¢s from AR-DRG v5.0.The DRGÃ¢â¬â¢s which were added were malignancies of breast, mental health and maternity. MDC 09 There was a split for malignant and non malignant diseases MDC 14 Supplementary Patient Clinical Complexity Level split (PCCL) MDC 19 A split for PCCL and age, split for mental health legal status MDC 20 PCCL split for alcohol intoxication and withdrawl. Patient Clinical Complexity Level- Is an evaluation of accumulative effect of patient comorbidities, complications and for each episode they are calculated. Complication and Comorbidity level- It is the seriousness of diagnosis and values vary for medical and surgical episodes.(IHPA 2014a) 3. This report highlights the issues associated with coding practises involving rate of occurrence, causes, ramifications and solutions. The problems associated with coding practises are known as DRG upcoding and are coding errors which occur when a patient event shifts to a DRG which has a higher restitution. In case of public hospitals it may be due to misconception between the doctor and the coder whereas in a private hospital it may be intentional. The causes of DRG upcoding are due to Careless attitude when a coder is more concerned regarding productivity and standards are not given preference as a coder goes through huge medical records without paying much attention. (2) Sometimes after using codes repeatedly a memorised code without checking is entered and this is the reason for an error. (3) Inappropriate documentation may lead to error. (4) Encoder pathways are used by clinical encoders in the process of coding to determine DRG allocation and code. When an erroneous coding pathway occurs it results in allotment of an incorrect code. (5) False selection of primary diagnosis due to scarce knowledge of coding terminology and principles. (6) Missed secondary diagnosis Due to DRG upcoding errors which occur because of misinterpretation between the doctor and the coder massive losses are caused to government.(Luo Gallagher 2010) During an investigation of Leukaemia and Lymphoma AR-DRGÃ¢â¬â¢s at a Sydney teaching hospital 242 episodes disclosed a level of miscoding which was considered mainly due to undercoding of comorbidities and complexities created an error rate of 15% in the DRG.(Reid, Allen McIntosh 2005) The solutions involve Inspection of original medical records. (2) Previous data should be compared to observe percent of elevated cost of DRG. (3) The most dependable method is code audit in which a knowledgeable health manager codes the original chart once again thereby comparing the codes which were deposited by the hospital with new codes. (4) It is a resource intensive procedure therefore it is conducted after a long time and very less patients are scrutinized.(Luo Gallagher 2010) 4. This report will discuss the issues regarding use of average as a measure of central tendency and approaches in reference to AR-DRG regarding long stay of patients. The value of mean in a dataset can be defined as sum of values of each observation which is divided by the number of observations.(Statistics 2013) Mean value as the characteristic value can be deceptive as it may mostly rely on extreme values For instance if there were five patients in a ward with fractured leg 40+20+21+23+25/5 = 26 When all the observations are weighed equally the forty year old patient will cause an increase in the measure of central tendency and is not representative of the data which is available. When data is available with less number of variables with uncommonly small or large numbers then in such cases median is used as a measure of central tendency. During calculation of median the values in a group of numbers are classified from highest to lowest. Median is mostly used for demographic data with outliers or extreme values. When there are odd number of observations then the middle number is taken as median whereas in case even number of observation where an average of middle two values gives median.(Henderson 2009) In case of a long stay outlier a basic amount of mean inlier cost is assigned to each event. For every outlier day a per diem is calculated by two ways 1. In AR-DRGÃ¢â¬â¢s in which the duration of stay was methodical and wide to allow regression analysis the length of stay regression coefficient was per diem and it did not included the same day episodes. 2.For the remaining AR-DRGÃ¢â¬â¢s cost were divided into variable and fixed and a mean variable cost related to per day of patient was the basis for per diem cost.(IHPA 2014b) 5. This report will discuss about the about the comparison of peer hospitals. It also highlights the hospital areas and type of patients where benchmarks were not followed and the average Australia wide DRG. For genuine comparison of hospitals within Australia the jurisdiction explores and executes approaches for the same. The jurisdiction accomplishes approaches which can assist the range and quality of data. A fair comparison among hospitals are carried out by peer groups independent of socio economic status of patients, size of hospital and the facilities provided. Hospitals are compared on the basis of efficiency, the healthcare staff including the number of doctors and number of beds in hospital. Case Mix Index (CMI) and category of hospital whether it is generalised or specialised are also considered. There were certain cases where the areas of hospital could not maintain standards and led to a hospital acquired infection in patients which are also known as Nosocomial infections. The most common infections were caused due to bacteria because of a lack of proper hygiene methods. In Australia approximately 200,000 cases (Cruickshanck and Ferguson 2008) of hospital acquired infections were reported and it became the commonest complexity affecting patients in hospitals.(welfare 2012-13) The ABF models are not able to reimburse hospital for the treatment of patient with major trauma in terms of cost. In case of trauma patients establishment of a DRG can be complicated due to the multiple injuries patient has suffered. Studies were conducted in many trauma centres worldwide. After research it was found that incidents of trauma had a cost of $178.7 million in 2008-09 in the state. The true cost for the trauma centre was $134 per day. Among the causes road trauma and violence were the major reasons. The increased cost was associated with injured body parts, length of stay, brain injury and whether the patient was admitted to intensive care unit.(Association 2014) References Association, A.H.a.H. 2014, Activity based funding models can disadvantage trauma centres. Casto, A.B., Layman, E. Association, A.H.I.M. 2006, Principles of healthcare reimbursement, American Health Information Management Association Chicago. CISS 2005, The Diagnosis Related Groups (DRGs) to adjust payment mechanism for health system provider. Department of Health, V., Australia 2014, Casemix funding history. Henderson, J. 2009, Health Economics and Policy. IHPA, I.H.P.A. 2014a, Admitted acute care. IHPA, I.H.P.A. 2014b, DRG Inlier/Outlier model. Luo, W. Gallagher, M. 2010, Unsupervised DRG upcoding detection in healthcare databases, Data Mining Workshops (ICDMW), 2010 IEEE International Conference on, IEEE, pp. 600-5. Ministry of Health, N. 2009/10, Costs of Care Standards. Reid, B., Allen, C. McIntosh, J. 2005, Investigation of leukaemia and lymphoma AR-DRGs at a Sydney teaching hospital, Health Information Management Journal, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 54-9. Statistics, A.B.O. 2013, Measure Of Central Tendency. welfare, A.I.o.h.a. 2012-13, Australian Hospital Statistics 2012-13. WHO 2007, Technical briefs for policy makers, vol. Number 2.
Wednesday, November 13, 2019
Use of Mise en Scene in the Film Yellow Earth The film Ã¢â¬Å"Yellow EarthÃ¢â¬ is the sad tale of a girl being forced to follow her Ã¢â¬Å"fate.Ã¢â¬ She sees an opportunity to escape in a foreigner, a soldier from the south. In this film, director Chen Kaige and cinematographer Zhang Yimou create windows into their characters. Several scenes are made more significant because of the use of mise en scene. This technique allows the viewer to see everything that happens during the course of the scene. The most impactful scene is perhaps when the soldier Gu is first brought into their home. Although the camera will show different shots, time is still continuous. It is not an interruption and is only moving to provide the audience with a better view. The continuousness of time is important because the audience knows everything that is occurring between the characters. The viewer hears their conversations and their silences. This use if mise en scene allows the viewer to get a sense of the tension between Gu and the family (as he is a newcomer), and between Cuiqiao and the others. There are two main angles that Yimou uses in this scene. One is centered on Gu and the other is centered on Cuiqiao, from slightly to the right of GuÃ¢â¬â¢s perspective. Whenever the shot is facing Gu, it is at his level. Everything is level with his camera angle and straight with his life. CuiqiaoÃ¢â¬â¢s angle, however, is looking down on her. This is reflective of her current emotional state. She is sorrowful and repressed. Whenever a character performs an important action, the camera shows them. The first time that Cuiqiao and Han Han are spoken to, they become visible. Also, we see CuiqiaoÃ¢â¬â¢s reactions when they are important to her characterization. Gu speaks somewhat about the South and how free and wonderful it is. CuiqiaoÃ¢â¬â¢s curiosity is expressed on her face. The audience also sees Cuiqiao forgetting about what she is doing with the bellows.
Monday, November 11, 2019
Ã¢â¬Å"Elizabeth?Ã¢â¬ I asked. Ã¢â¬Å"Anne? Karen? What's your name? C'mon. I know you know it.Ã¢â¬ The Healer's body was still limp on the cot. It had been a long time-how long, I wasn't sure. Hours and hours. I hadn't slept yet, though the sun was far up in the sky. Doc had climbed out onto the mountain to pull the tarps away, and the sun beamed brightly through the holes in the ceiling, hot on my skin. I'd moved the nameless woman so that her face would be out of the glare. I touched her face now lightly, patting the soft brown hair, woven through with white strands, away from her face. Ã¢â¬Å"Julie? Brittany? Angela? Patricia? Am I getting close? Talk to me. Please?Ã¢â¬ Everyone but Doc-snoring quietly on a cot in the darkest corner of the hospital-had gone away hours ago. Some to bury the host body we'd lost. I cringed, thinking of his bewildered question, and the sudden way his face had gone slack. Why? he'd asked me. I so much wished that the soul had waited for an answer, so I could have tried to explain it to him. He might even have understood. After all, what was more important, in the end, than love? To a soul, wasn't that the heart of everything? And love would have been my answer. Maybe, if he'd waited, he would have seen the truth of that. If he'd really understood, I was sure he would have let the human body live. The request would probably have made little sense to him, though. The body was his body, not a separate entity. His suicide was simply that to him, not a murder, too. Only one life had ended. And perhaps he was right. At least the souls had survived. The light on his tank glowed dull red beside hers; I couldn't ask for a greater evidence of commitment from my humans than this, the sparing of his life. Ã¢â¬Å"Mary? Margaret? Susan? Jill?Ã¢â¬ Though Doc slept and I was otherwise alone, I could feel the echo of the tension the others had left behind; it still hung in the air. The tension lingered because the woman had not woken up when the chloroform wore off. She had not moved. She was still breathing, her heart was still beating, but she had not responded to any of Doc's efforts to revive her. Was it too late? Was she lost? Was she already gone? Just as dead as the male body? Were all of them? Were there only a very few, like the Seeker's host, Lacey, and Melanie-the shouters, the resisters-who could be brought back? Was everyone else gone? Was Lacey an anomaly? Would Melanie come back the way she hadÃ¢â¬ ¦ or was even that in question? I'm not lost. I'm here. But Mel's mental voice was defensive. She worried, too. Yes, you are here. And you will stay here, I promised. With a sigh, I returned to my efforts. My doomed efforts? Ã¢â¬Å"I know you have a name,Ã¢â¬ I told the woman. Ã¢â¬Å"Is it Rebecca? Alexandra? Olivia? Something simpler, maybeÃ¢â¬ ¦ Jane? Jean? Joan?Ã¢â¬ It was better than nothing, I thought glumly. At least I'd given them a way to help themselves if they were ever taken. I could help the resisters, if no one else. It didn't seem like enough. Ã¢â¬Å"You're not giving me much to work with,Ã¢â¬ I murmured. I took her hand in both of mine, chafed it softly. Ã¢â¬Å"It would really be nice if you would make an effort. My friends are going to be depressed enough. They could use some good news. Besides, with Kyle still goneÃ¢â¬ ¦ It will be hard to evacuate everyone without having to carry you around, too. I know you want to help. This is your family here, you know. These are your kind. They're very nice. Most of them. You'll like them.Ã¢â¬ The gently lined face was vacant with unconsciousness. She was quite pretty in an inconspicuous way-her features very symmetrical on her oval face. Forty-five, maybe a little younger, maybe a little older. It was hard to tell with no animation in the face. Ã¢â¬Å"They need you,Ã¢â¬ I went on, pleading now. Ã¢â¬Å"You can help them. You know so much that I never knew. Doc tries so hard. He deserves some help. He's a good man. You've been a Healer for a while now; some of that care for the well-being of others must have rubbed off on you. You'll like Doc, I think. Ã¢â¬Å"Is your name Sarah? Emily? Kristin?Ã¢â¬ I stroked her soft cheek, but there was no response, so I took her limp hand in mine again. I gazed at the blue sky through the holes in the high ceiling. My mind wandered. Ã¢â¬Å"I wonder what they'll do if Kyle never comes back. How long will they hide? Will they have to find a new home somewhere else? There are so many of themÃ¢â¬ ¦ It won't be easy. I wish I could help them, but even if I could stay, I don't have any answers. Ã¢â¬Å"Maybe they'll get to stay hereÃ¢â¬ ¦ somehow. Maybe Kyle won't mess up.Ã¢â¬ I laughed humorlessly, thinking of the odds. Kyle wasn't a careful man. However, until that situation was resolved, I was needed. Maybe, if there were Seekers looking, they would need my infallible eyes. It might take a long time, and that made me feel warmer than the sun on my skin. Made me feel grateful that Kyle was impetuous and selfish. How long until we were sure we were safe? Ã¢â¬Å"I wonder what it's like here when it gets cold. I can barely re-member feeling cold. And what if it rains? It has to rain here sometime, doesn't it? With all these holes in the roof, it must get really wet. Where does everyone sleep then, I wonder.Ã¢â¬ I sighed. Ã¢â¬Å"Maybe I'll get to find out. Probably shouldn't bet on that, though. Aren't you curious at all? If you would wake up, you could get the answers. I'm curious. Maybe I'll ask Ian about it. It's funny to imagine things changing hereÃ¢â¬ ¦ I guess summer can't last forever.Ã¢â¬ Her fingers fluttered for one second in my hand. It took me by surprise because my mind had wandered away from the woman on the cot, beginning to sink into the melancholy that was always conveniently near these days. I stared down at her; there was no change-the hand in mine was limp, her face still vacant. Maybe I'd imagined the movement. Ã¢â¬Å"Did I say something you were interested in? What was I talking about?Ã¢â¬ I thought quickly, watching her face. Ã¢â¬Å"Was it the rain? Or was it the idea of change? Change? You've got a lot of that ahead of you, don't you? You have to wake up first, though.Ã¢â¬ Her face was empty, her hand motionless. Ã¢â¬Å"So you don't care for change. Can't say that I blame you. I don't want change to come, either. Are you like me? Do you wish the summer could last?Ã¢â¬ If I hadn't been watching her face so closely, I wouldn't have seen the tiny flicker of her lids. Ã¢â¬Å"You like summertime, do you?Ã¢â¬ I asked hopefully. Her lips twitched. Ã¢â¬Å"Summer?Ã¢â¬ Her hand trembled. Ã¢â¬Å"Is that your name-Summer? Summer? That's a pretty name.Ã¢â¬ Her hand tightened into a fist, and her lips parted. Ã¢â¬Å"Come back, Summer. I know you can do it. Summer? Listen to me, Summer. Open your eyes, Summer.Ã¢â¬ Her eyes blinked rapidly. Ã¢â¬Å"Doc!Ã¢â¬ I called over my shoulder. Ã¢â¬Å"Doc, wake up!Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Huh?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I think she's coming around!Ã¢â¬ I turned back to the woman. Ã¢â¬Å"Keep it up, Summer. You can do this. I know it's hard. Summer, Summer, Summer. Open your eyes.Ã¢â¬ Her face grimaced-was she in pain? Ã¢â¬Å"Bring the No Pain, Doc. Hurry.Ã¢â¬ The woman squeezed my hand, and her eyes opened. They didn't focus at first, just whirled around the bright cave. What a strange, unexpected sight this place must have been for her. Ã¢â¬Å"You're going to be all right, Summer. You're going to be fine. Can you hear me, Summer?Ã¢â¬ Her eyes wheeled back to me, the pupils constricting. She stared, absorbing my face. Then she cringed away from me, twisting on the cot to escape. A low, hoarse cry of panic broke through her lips. Ã¢â¬Å"No, no, no,Ã¢â¬ she cried. Ã¢â¬Å"No more.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Doc!Ã¢â¬ He was there, on the other side of the cot, like before, when we were operating. Ã¢â¬Å"It's okay, ma'am,Ã¢â¬ he assured her. Ã¢â¬Å"No one is going to hurt you here.Ã¢â¬ The woman had her eyes squeezed shut, and she recoiled into the thin mattress. Ã¢â¬Å"I think her name is Summer.Ã¢â¬ He flashed a look at me and then made a face. Ã¢â¬Å"Eyes, Wanda,Ã¢â¬ he breathed. I blinked and realized that the sun was on my face. Ã¢â¬Å"Oh.Ã¢â¬ I let the woman pull her hand free. Ã¢â¬Å"Don't, please,Ã¢â¬ the woman begged. Ã¢â¬Å"Not again.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Shh,Ã¢â¬ Doc murmured. Ã¢â¬Å"Summer? People call me Doc. No one's going to do anything to you. You're going to be fine.Ã¢â¬ I eased away from them, into the shadows. Ã¢â¬Å"Don't call me that!Ã¢â¬ the woman sobbed. Ã¢â¬Å"That's not my name! It's hers, it's hers! Don't say it again!Ã¢â¬ I'd gotten the wrong name. Mel objected to the guilt that washed through me. It's not your fault. Summer is a human name, too. Ã¢â¬Å"Of course not,Ã¢â¬ Doc promised. Ã¢â¬Å"What is your name?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I-I-I don't know!Ã¢â¬ she wailed. Ã¢â¬Å"What happened? Who was I? Don't make me be someone else again.Ã¢â¬ She tossed and thrashed on the cot. Ã¢â¬Å"Calm down; it's going to be okay, I promise. No one's going to make you be anyone but you, and you'll remember your name. It's going to come back.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Who are you?Ã¢â¬ she demanded. Ã¢â¬Å"Who's she? She's likeÃ¢â¬ ¦ like I was. I saw her eyes!Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I'm Doc. And I'm human, just like you. See?Ã¢â¬ He moved his face into the light and blinked at her. Ã¢â¬Å"We're both just ourselves. There are lots of humans here. They'll be so happy to meet you.Ã¢â¬ She cringed again. Ã¢â¬Å"Humans! I'm afraid of humans.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"No, you're not. TheÃ¢â¬ ¦ person who used to be in your body was afraid of humans. She was a soul, remember that? And then remember before that, before she was there? You were human then, and you are again.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I can't remember my name,Ã¢â¬ she told him in a panicked voice. Ã¢â¬Å"I know. It'll come back.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Are you a doctor?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I am.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I wasÃ¢â¬ ¦ she was, too. AÃ¢â¬ ¦ Healer. Like a doctor. She was Summer Song. Who am I?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"We'll find out. I promise you that.Ã¢â¬ I edged toward the exit. Trudy would be a good person to help Doc, or maybe Heidi. Someone with a calming face. Ã¢â¬Å"She's not human!Ã¢â¬ the woman whispered urgently to Doc, her eye caught by my movement. Ã¢â¬Å"She's a friend; don't be afraid. She helped me bring you back.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Where is Summer Song? She was scared. There were humansÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ I ducked out the door while she was distracted. I heard Doc answer the question behind me. Ã¢â¬Å"She's going to a new planet. Do you remember where she was before she came here?Ã¢â¬ I could guess what her answer would be from the name. Ã¢â¬Å"She wasÃ¢â¬ ¦ a Bat? She could flyÃ¢â¬ ¦ She could singÃ¢â¬ ¦ I rememberÃ¢â¬ ¦ but it wasÃ¢â¬ ¦ not here. Where am I?Ã¢â¬ I hurried down the hall to find help for Doc. I was surprised when I saw the light of the great cavern ahead-surprised because it was so quiet. Usually you could hear voices before you saw the light. It was the middle of the day. There should have been someone in the big garden room, if only crossing through. I walked out into the bright noon light, and the giant space was empty. The fresh tendrils of the cantaloupe vines were dark green, darker than the dry earth they sprang from. The earth was too dry-the irrigating barrel stood ready to fix that, the hoses laid out along the furrows. But no one manned the crude machine. It sat abandoned on the side of the field. I stood very still, trying to hear something. The huge cavern was silent, and the silence was ominous. Where was everyone? Had they evacuated without me? A pang of fear and hurt shot through me. But they wouldn't have left without Doc, of course. They would never leave Doc. I wanted to dart back through the long tunnel to make sure Doc had not disappeared, too. They wouldn't go without us, either, silly. Jared and Jamie and Ian wouldn't leave us behind. You're right. You're right. Let'sÃ¢â¬ ¦ check the kitchen? I jogged down the silent corridor, getting more anxious as the silence continued. Maybe it was my imagination, and the loud thumping of my pulse in my ears. Of course there must be something to hear. If I could calm down and slow my breathing, I'd be able to hear voices. But I reached the kitchen and it was empty, too. Empty of people. On the tables, half-eaten lunches had been abandoned. Peanut butter on the last of the soft bread. Apples and warm cans of soda. My stomach reminded me that I hadn't eaten at all today, but I barely noted the twist of hunger. The panic was so much stronger. What ifÃ¢â¬ ¦ what if we didn't evacuate soon enough? No! Mel gasped. No, we would have heard something! Someone would haveÃ¢â¬ ¦ or there would beÃ¢â¬ ¦ They'd still be here, looking for us. They wouldn't give up until they'd checked everywhere. So that can't be it. Unless they're looking for us now. I spun back toward the door, my eyes darting through the shadows. I had to go warn Doc. We had to get out of here if we were the last two. No! They can't be gone! Jamie, JaredÃ¢â¬ ¦ Their faces were so clear, as if they were etched onto the insides of my eyelids. And Ian's face, as I added my own pictures to hers. Jeb, Trudy, Lily, Heath, Geoffrey. We'll get them back, I vowed. We'll hunt them down one by one and steal them back! I won't let them take my family! If I'd had any doubts where I stood, this moment would have erased them. I'd never felt so fierce in all my lives. My teeth clenched tight, snapping together audibly. And then the noise, the babble of voices I'd been so anxiously straining to hear, echoed down the hall to us and made my breath catch. I slid silently to the wall and pressed myself into the shadow there, listening. The big garden. You can hear it in the echoes. Sounds like a large group. Yes. But yours or mine? Ours or theirs, she corrected. I crept down the hall, keeping to the darkest shadows. We could hear the voices more clearly now, and some of them were familiar. Did that mean anything? How long would it take trained Seekers to perform an insertion? And then, as I reached the very mouth of the great cave, the sounds became even clearer, and relief washed through me-because the babble of voices was just the same as it had been my very first day here. Murderously angry. They had to be human voices. Kyle must be back. Relief warred with pain as I hurried into the bright sunlight to see what was going on. Relief because my humans were safe. And pain because if Kyle was already safely back, thenÃ¢â¬ ¦ You're still needed, Wanda. So much more than I am. I'm sure I could find excuses forever, Mel. There will always be some reason. Then stay. With you as my prisoner? We stopped arguing as we assessed the commotion in the cavern. Kyle was back-the easiest one to spot, the tallest in the crowd, the only one facing me. He was pinned against the far wall by the mob. Though he was the cause of the angry noise, he was not the source of it. His face was conciliatory, pleading. He held his arms out to the sides, palms back, as if there was something behind him he was trying to protect. Ã¢â¬Å"Just calm down, okay?Ã¢â¬ His deep voice carried over the cacophony. Ã¢â¬Å"Back off, Jared, you're scaring her!Ã¢â¬ A flash of black hair behind his elbow-an unfamiliar face, with wide, terrified black eyes, peeked around at the crowd. Jared was closest to Kyle. I could see that the back of his neck was bright red. Jamie clung to one of his arms, holding him back. Ian was on his other side, his arms crossed in front of him, the muscles in his shoulders tight with strain. Behind them, every other human but Doc and Jeb was massed in an angry throng. They surged behind Jared and Ian, asking loud, angry questions. Ã¢â¬Å"What were you thinking?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"How dare you?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Why'd you come back at all?Ã¢â¬ Jeb was in the back corner, just watching. Sharon Ã¢â¬Ës brilliant hair caught my eye. I was surprised to see her, with Maggie, right in the center of the crowd. They'd both been so little a part of life here ever since Doc and I had healed Jamie. Never in the middle of things. It's the fight, Mel guessed. They weren't comfortable with happiness, but they're at home with fury. I thought she was probably right. HowÃ¢â¬ ¦ disturbing. I heard a shrill voice throwing out some of the angry questions and realized that Lacey was part of the crowd, too. Ã¢â¬Å"Wanda?Ã¢â¬ Kyle's voice carried across the noise again, and I looked up to see his deep blue eyes locked on me. Ã¢â¬Å"There you are! Could you please come and give me a little help here?Ã¢â¬
Friday, November 8, 2019
Mute swans essays Mute Swans were transported to the United States from Europe many years ago for very wealthy land owners that thought the swans would make a sophisticated and elegant addition to their ponds. The swans adjusted to their new environment very well, and over many years spread across much of the Eastern United States. Presently, the Mute Swans are being blamed for damaging the ecosystem in many eastern states. Maryland, Virginia, New Jersey, New York, the Carolinas, and Georgia have all reported the swans are causing extensive damage. Maryland has been hurt far worse than any of the other states. Specifically, Marylands sensitive Chesapeake Bay is approaching having its entire ecosystems thrown off balance due to the reduction of the bays aquatic grasses. A primary reason the bays grasses are diminishing is the Mute Swan is eating and destroying the grasses before they can grow back. The reduction of the Chesapeake Bays aquatic grasses is a serious problem that will continue to g et worse until the Mute Swan population is reduced. John Foster, a retired DNR employ and a current Environmental Consulting Services employ, agrees that the swans impact on the bay is extensive and the problem must be solved. Many barriers, however, are standing in the way which prevent people from solving the problem. Mute Swans, unfortunately, are considered wetland game birds which makes it illegal to kill them under Maryland state law. Marylands Department of Natural Resources applied for kill permits; citizens could shoot about sixty seven percent of the over three thousand swans in Maryland to reduce but not deplete the population (Humane Society). This particular plan to bring the number of swans to a manageable level was quickly dropped by DNR because the public responded very negatively to the idea of citizens killing the birds. Many animal rights activists took DNR to court and had this plan blo...
Wednesday, November 6, 2019
AP Reality In John Updike's short story "AP,"Ã the narrator struggles to be a part of a fantasy world before being abruptly forced back into his reality world. The three girls that enter the store cause the narrator to fantasize of a life other than what he is accustom to. The narrator imagines living their kind of life, which includes wealth and confidence, only to be constantly reminded of his actual life by the people around him. In the end, after quitting his job in an attempt to be a hero, the narrator ends up back in the undesirable life to which he belongs.English: John Updike giving the 2008 Jefferson Lec...He didn't remember if whether or not he rang up one of the woman's items or not. "I stood there with my hand on a box of HiHo crackers trying to remember if I rang it up or not."Ã He was too busy looking at the girls and noticing each aspect of them. "She was a chunky kid, with a good tan and a sweet broad soft looking can"Ã ¦"Ã Therefore he rings it up again and th e woman complains to him. Sammy goes on calling her a witch, as if he did nothing wrong. However it is the woman who didn't do anything wrong in this situation. All she was doing was making sure was getting charged the right amount for McLoughlin 2 her purchase. Maybe if he took some responsibility in his job, he wouldn't have this customer complain to...
Monday, November 4, 2019
The Heroes Living Among Us - Essay Example In a broader term, anyone who puts his or her life in danger to save the lives of others can be considered as a hero. The heroes exist around us. They are from us and are not supernatural beings, but they try to do what others get afraid of. Now let us analyze what qualities are possessed by a hero. To my mind, someone who goes over and above what is expected of him, beyond his determined duty in order to help those who are in need can be categorized as a hero. The police officers can also be regarded as heroes, who take significant risk of their lives to fight against the outlaws and capture them to disarm and safeguard other people and their lives. Take the example of a police officer who dives into the deep sea just to save the inmates of a sinking car or who fights bravely against the terrorists. We may always find heroic police officers passionate, loving and helpful to others who are in need. There are certainly risks involved with being a police officer as he has to do many jobs that help society, but are dangerous (such as roofers and fishers) (Bargainnier & Dove 39). With the benefits that so many cops get and the obvious reasons to go into law enforcement (there is very high competition right now), there are also many risks involved. There are numerous examples of courage that are shown by the police personnel who sacrifice their lives to save the lives of others at the debacle of World Trade Center. The name of Benjamin Clark was very famous due to his courage that saved hundreds of lives in the South Tower. We rightly admire the people who are Marines, firefighters and cops as they rush to various scenes in emergency to save the lives and property of the victims (Bargainnier & Dove 47). It is right to honor the courage of people of the mentioned services who showed their bravery at gory incident of 9/11. The act of government to confer them with highest award of the country would definitely encourage others to follow their suit. Their